Based from everyone responses, neither Bob nor Chris are incorrect in
their understanding. It depends on the company security policy. I
believe what Bob is referring to is the Limited Access Privilege in
Physical Security Policy. It requires multiple parties' involvement
order to grant a person access to a secure room. On the other hand,
Chris is talking about the multi-factor authentication in system
which implemented a little differently and require three important
things in Authentication:
1. Something you know (i.e Password)
2. Something you have (id badge or cryptographic key)
3. Something you are (a voice print or other biometric)
Hope I haven't confused anyone.
From: Mike Lococo [mailto:mike.lococo () nyu edu]
Sent: Tuesday, August 14, 2007 2:59 PM
To: security-basics () securityfocus com
Subject: Re: Multi-Factor Authentication Concern
I looked at all of the suggested links, including the Wikipedia
article, and I cannot find anything that explicitly states that the
factors in a multi-factor authentication system must all be from the
Because authentication is, by definition, the process of verifying an
asserted identity (that statement is easy to find references for,
including the wikipedia article on authentication). An access
system must authenticate _each_ identity separately, even when
identities are involved in a single transaction and even if the
is streamlined to 'feel' as though it's a single action. As you're
thinking and speaking about this, remember the difference between
identification, authentication, and authorization.
1) Identification: Your identity is your username in the system.
may have to say it, or type it, or it may be inferred from a retinal
scan or whatever. As a basic access control principle, every
must have an identity. Anytime you're accepting credentials from
than one individual, you are _by_definition_ performing more than one
2) Authentication: An identity is authenticated via password, or
voiceprint, or token, or whatever. If only one type is required,
single factor. If more than one type is required, it's multi-factor.
If more than one type is available (you have a token and a password),
but either is sufficient (you can log in with your password even if
lost the token), it's still single factor... you just have options.
3) Authorization: Once you are authenticated, you may or may not be
_authorized_ to access the resource you're interested in. If a
requires more than one user to authenticate in order authorize an
action, it implements split-authentication or split-authorization
referred to in the context of passwords/pins as split-knowledge).
identity is still authenticated individually, but more than one is
required before any are authorized.
You're talking about multi-factor authentication. Your friend is
talking about split-knowledge/authentication/authorization. No
authoritative source on IDM or access-control is going to talk about
whether multi-factor authentication involves multiple identities
it's well-established that all authentication schemes have as their
basic goal the verification of a single asserted identity.
Authorization schemes exist that require multiple identities to be
involved in a single transaction (nukes and expensive safe-deposit
work this way), but each is always authenticated individually.