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PHP/FI command line buffer overflow
From: davids () SECNET COM (David Sacerdote)
Date: Thu, 17 Apr 1997 16:02:07 -0600


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                         Secure Networks Inc.

                          Security Advisory

                           April 17, 1997

                      Buffer Overflow in php.cgi

This advisory describes a remotely exploitable buffer overflow in the PHP
cgi program.  This is *NOT* the PATTERN_RESTRICT issue described in
earlier bugtraq discussion.


Problem Description
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

In the function FixFilename() function in file.c, PHP attempts to pass
strings whose length may be as long as  8 kilobytes into buffers as small
as 128 bytes.  This overwrites the stack, making it possible for an
attacker to obtain shell access to the machine running the web server.



Technical Details
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The filename argument to FixFilename is derived from the command line
used to invoke to the CGI script, or from the QUERY_STRING environment
variable passed to it.  The total length of either can be as long as
eight kilobytes, but the fn string is a mere 128 bytes long.  An
excerpt from the flawed code reads:

char *FixFilename(char *filename, int cd, int *ret) {
 ...
        char fn[128], user[128], *s;
 ...
        s = strrchr(filename,'/');
        if(s) {
                strcpy(fn,s+1);
 ...



Impact
~~~~~~

Attackers can remotely obtain shell or command line access to any vulnerable
system.


Vulnerable Systems
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Any computer running a web server with php.cgi 2.0beta10 or earlier
is vulnerable, irrespective of what operating system it is running,
provided that PHP is run as a cgi, and not as an Apache module.  When
compiled as an Apache module, PHP does not appear to execute the
problem code.

To determine whether a system is running a web server with php.cgi installed
as a cgi, use your favorite web browser to access the URL

http://hostname/cgi-bin/php.cgi

If you see something like:

PHP/FI Version 2.0b10
 ...

Then the machine hostname is running PHP/FI.


Fix information
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Use the patch program to apply the following diffs to file.c, then recompile
php.cgi.  These diffs are against version 2.0b10.

*** file.c      Thu Apr 17 09:36:07 1997
- --- file.c.fixed      Thu Apr 17 09:36:00 1997
***************
*** 295,315 ****

        s = strrchr(filename,'/');
        if(s) {
!               strcpy(fn,s+1);
                o=*s;
                *s='\0';
!               strcpy(path,filename);
                *s=o;
        } else {
  #ifdef PHP_ROOT_DIR
!               strcpy(path,PHP_ROOT_DIR);
  #else
                path[0] = '\0';
  #endif
!               strcpy(fn,filename);
        }
        if(fn && *fn=='~') {
!               strcpy(path,fn);
                fn[0]='\0';
        }
        if(*path) {
- --- 295,320 ----

        s = strrchr(filename,'/');
        if(s) {
!               strncpy(fn,s+1, sizeof (fn));
!               fn[sizeof(fn) - 1] = '\0';
                o=*s;
                *s='\0';
!               strncpy(path,filename, sizeof (path));
!               path[sizeof(path) - 1] = '\0';
                *s=o;
        } else {
  #ifdef PHP_ROOT_DIR
!               strncpy(path,PHP_ROOT_DIR, sizeof(path));
!               path[sizeof(path) -1] = '\0';
  #else
                path[0] = '\0';
  #endif
!               strncpy(fn,filename, sizeof (fn));
!               fn[sizeof(fn) - 1] = '\0';
        }
        if(fn && *fn=='~') {
!               strncpy(path,fn, sizeof (path));
!               path[sizeof(path) - 1] = '\0';
                fn[0]='\0';
        }
        if(*path) {
***************
*** 319,328 ****
                                o=*s;
                                *s='\0';
                        }
!                       strcpy(user,path+1);
                        if(s) {
                                *s=o;
!                               strcpy(temp,s);
                        } else temp[0]='\0';
  #ifdef HAVE_PWD_H
                        if(*user) {
- --- 324,335 ----
                                o=*s;
                                *s='\0';
                        }
!                       strncpy(user,path+1, sizeof (user));
!                       user[sizeof(user) - 1] = '\0';
                        if(s) {
                                *s=o;
!                               strncpy(temp,s, sizeof (temp));
!                               temp[sizeof(temp) - 1] = '\0';
                        } else temp[0]='\0';
  #ifdef HAVE_PWD_H
                        if(*user) {
***************
*** 333,339 ****
                                  pd = getenv(PHP_PUB_DIRNAME_ENV);
  #endif
                                  if (pd == 0) pd = PHP_PUB_DIRNAME;
!                                 sprintf(path,"%s/%s%s",pw->pw_dir,pd,temp);
                                }
                        }
  #endif
- --- 340,351 ----
                                  pd = getenv(PHP_PUB_DIRNAME_ENV);
  #endif
                                  if (pd == 0) pd = PHP_PUB_DIRNAME;
!                                 strcpy (path,pw->pw_dir);
!                                 strcat (path,"/");
!                                 strncat (path, pd,
!                                       sizeof(path) - strlen(path) - 1);
!                                 strncat (path, temp,
!                                        sizeof (path) - strlen(path) - 1);
                                }
                        }
  #endif
***************
*** 343,352 ****
                                o=*s;
                                *s='\0';
                        }
!                       strcpy(user,path+2);
                        if(s) {
                                *s=o;
!                               strcpy(temp,s);
                        } else temp[0]='\0';
  #if HAVE_PWD_H
                        if(*user) {
- --- 355,366 ----
                                o=*s;
                                *s='\0';
                        }
!                       strncpy(user,path+2, sizeof (user));
!                       user[sizeof(user) - 1] = '\0';
                        if(s) {
                                *s=o;
!                               strncpy(temp,s,sizeof(temp));
!                               temp[sizeof(temp) - 1] = '\0';
                        } else temp[0]='\0';
  #if HAVE_PWD_H
                        if(*user) {
***************
*** 357,363 ****
                                  pd = getenv(PHP_PUB_DIRNAME_ENV);
  #endif
                                  if (pd == 0) pd = PHP_PUB_DIRNAME;
!                                 sprintf(path,"%s/%s%s",pw->pw_dir,pd,temp);                   }
                        }
  #endif
                }
- --- 371,383 ----
                                  pd = getenv(PHP_PUB_DIRNAME_ENV);
  #endif
                                  if (pd == 0) pd = PHP_PUB_DIRNAME;
!                                 strcpy (path,pw->pw_dir);
!                                 strcat (path,"/");
!                                 strncat (path, pd,
!                                       sizeof(path) - strlen(path) - 1);
!                                 strncat (path, temp,
!                                        sizeof (path) - strlen(path) - 1);
!                               }
                        }
  #endif
                }
***************
*** 370,376 ****
                        }
                }
                if(*fn) {
!                       sprintf(temp,"%s/%s",path,fn);
  #ifndef WINDOWS
                        st = stat(temp,&gsb);
  #else
- --- 390,399 ----
                        }
                }
                if(*fn) {
!                       strncpy (temp, path, sizeof (temp));
!                       temp[sizeof(temp) - 1] = '\0';
!                       strcat (temp,"/");
!                       strncat(temp,fn,sizeof(temp) - strlen(temp) - 1);
  #ifndef WINDOWS
                        st = stat(temp,&gsb);
  #else
***************
*** 382,394 ****
                                st = -1;
  #endif
                        if((st!=-1) && (gsb.st_mode&S_IFMT)==S_IFDIR) {
!                               sprintf(temp,"%s/%s/index.html",path,fn);
                                st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                                if(st==-1) {
!                                       sprintf(temp,"%s/%s/index.phtml",path,fn);
                                        st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                                }
!                               sprintf(path,"%s/%s",path,fn);
                        } else if(st==-1) {
                                l = strlen(temp);
                                if(strlen(fn)>4) {
- --- 405,431 ----
                                st = -1;
  #endif
                        if((st!=-1) && (gsb.st_mode&S_IFMT)==S_IFDIR) {
!                               strncpy (temp,path,sizeof(temp));
!                               temp[sizeof(temp) - 1] = '\0';
!                               strcat (temp, "/");
!                               strncat (temp,fn,
!                                       sizeof(temp) - strlen (temp) - 1);
!                               strncat (temp,"/index.html",
!                                       sizeof(temp) - strlen (temp) - 1);
                                st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                                if(st==-1) {
!                                       strncpy (temp,path,sizeof(temp));
!                                       temp[sizeof(temp) - 1] = '\0';
!                                       strcat (temp, "/");
!                                       strncat (temp,fn,
!                                            sizeof(temp) - strlen (temp) - 1);
!                                       strncat (temp,"/index.html",
!                                            sizeof(temp) - strlen (temp) - 1);
                                        st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                                }
!                               strcat (path,"/");
!                               strncat (path, fn,
!                                       sizeof(path) - strlen(path) - 1);
                        } else if(st==-1) {
                                l = strlen(temp);
                                if(strlen(fn)>4) {
***************
*** 410,422 ****
                                st = -1;
  #endif
                        if((st!=-1) && (gsb.st_mode&S_IFMT)==S_IFDIR) {
!                               sprintf(temp,"%s/index.html",path);
                                st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                                if(st==-1) {
!                                       sprintf(temp,"%s/index.phtml",path);
                                        st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                                }
!                       } else strcpy(temp,path);
                }
        } else {
  #ifndef WINDOWS
- --- 447,468 ----
                                st = -1;
  #endif
                        if((st!=-1) && (gsb.st_mode&S_IFMT)==S_IFDIR) {
!                               strncpy (temp, path, sizeof (temp));
!                               temp[sizeof(temp) - 1] = '\0';
!                               strncat (temp, "/index.html",
!                                       sizeof (temp) - strlen (temp) - 1);
                                st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                                if(st==-1) {
!                               strncpy (temp, path, sizeof (temp));
!                               temp[sizeof(temp) - 1] = '\0';
!                               strncat (temp, "/index.phtml",
!                                       sizeof (temp) - strlen (temp) - 1);
                                        st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                                }
!                       } else {
!                               strncpy(temp,path, sizeof (temp));
!                               temp[sizeof (temp) - 1] = '\0';
!                       }
                }
        } else {
  #ifndef WINDOWS
***************
*** 430,442 ****
                        st = -1;
  #endif
                if((st!=-1) && (gsb.st_mode&S_IFMT)==S_IFDIR) {
!                       sprintf(temp,"%s/index.html",fn);
                        st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                        if(st==-1) {
!                               sprintf(temp,"%s/index.phtml",fn);
                                st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                        }
!               } else strcpy(temp,fn);
        }
        *ret=st;
        return(temp);
- --- 476,498 ----
                        st = -1;
  #endif
                if((st!=-1) && (gsb.st_mode&S_IFMT)==S_IFDIR) {
!                       strncpy (temp, fn, sizeof (temp));
!                       temp[sizeof(temp) - 1] = '\0';
!                       strncat (temp, "/index.html",
!                               sizeof (temp) - strlen (temp) - 1);
                        st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                        if(st==-1) {
!                               strncpy (temp, fn, sizeof (temp));
!                               temp[sizeof(temp) - 1] = '\0';
!                               strncat (temp, "/index..phtml",
!                                       sizeof (temp) - strlen (temp) - 1);
!
                                st = stat(temp,&gsb);
                        }
!               } else {
!                       strncpy(temp,fn,sizeof (temp));
!                       temp[sizeof(temp) - 1] = '\0';
!               }
        }
        *ret=st;
        return(temp);


Additional Information
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

If you have any questions about this advisory, feel free to mail me at
davids () secnet com  Past Secure Networks advisories can be found at
ftp://ftp.secnet.com/pub/advisories, and Secure Networks papers can be
found at ftp://ftp.secnet.com/pub/papers.

PHP/FI was written by Rasmus Lerdorf <rasmus () vex net>.  Additional
information about PHP/FI can be found at http://www.vex.net/php

This advisory does NOT address a recently published hole in the php.cgi
which allows attackers to obtain copies of any file on the web server
which is readable by the user the php.cgi program runs as.

FIRST and vendor contacts please note that this advisory was expedited.
This is becuase we felt that previous public post (by another) party would
lead to the eventual discovery of this bug. As a result of this we therefore
wanted a fix to be availible to the public as soon as possible.

The following PGP key is for davids () secnet com, should you wish to encrypt
any message traffic to the author of this advisory:

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Feel free to send responses and commments to sni () secnet com   If you
should wish to encrypt such traffic, please use the Secure Networks Inc.
key:

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Copyright Notice
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The contents of this advisory are Copyright (C) 1997 Secure Networks Inc,
and may be distributed freely provided that no fee is charged for
distribution, and that proper credit is given.

PHP sources distributed as part of this advisory fall under the GNU
Public license, version 2.



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