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Crimelabs Paper: Passive System Fingerprinting using Network Client Applications
From: jose nazario <jose () SPAM THEGEEKEMPIRE NET>
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 2001 16:16:59 -0500
in keeping with the past few weeks and months in which some really great
papers have appeared on BUGTRAQ, i offer you a low-jack approach to
passive network analysis. i mentioned this earlier today on PEN-TEST, and
so far feedback has been positive and welcome.
better formatted, PS and PDF versions can be found on our website:
in this ASCII version i had to drop a large table due to the difficulty in
fitting it in 75 columns. please see the PS or PDF versions for this
this is a work in progress, so any suggestions would be welcome. this was
originally submitted to Summercon '01 in Amsterdam, but was not
accepted. perhaps i'll shop it around after some further tweaking.
the paper follows my .sig,
jose nazario jose () thegeekempire net
Passive System Fingerprinting using Network Client Applications
jose () crimelabs net
27 November, 2000
Passive target fingerprinting involves the utilization of network traffic
between two hosts by a third system to identify the types of systems being
used. Because no data is sent to either system by the monitoring party,
detection approaches the impossible. Methods which rely solely on the IP
options present in normal traffic are limited in the accuracy about the
targets. Further inspection is also needed to determine avenues of
vulnerability, as well. We describe a method to rapidly identify target
operating systems and version, as well as vectors of attack, based on data
sent by client applications. While simplistic, it is robust. The accuracy
of this method is also quite high in most cases. Four methods of
fingerprinting a system are presented, with sample data provided.
Passive OS mapping has become a new area of research in both white hat and
black hat arenas. For the white hat, it becomes a new method to map their
network and monitor traffic for security. For example, a new and possibly
subversive host can be identified quickly, often with great accuracy. For
the black hat, this method provides a nearly undetectable method to map a
network, finding vulnerable hosts.
To be sure, passive mapping can be a time consuming process. Even with
automated tools like Siphon<1> a sufficient quantity packets to arrive to
build up a statistically significant reading of the subjects' operating
systems. Compare this to active OS fingerprinting methods, using tools
like nmap<2> and queso<3>, which can operate in under a minute usually,
and only more determined attackers, or curious types, will be attracted to
Current Methods and Research
Two major methods of operating system fingerprinting exist in varying
degrees of use, active and passive. Active scanning involves the use of IP
packets sent to the host and the scanner then monitoring the replies to
guess the operating systems. Passive scanning, in contrast, allows the
scanning party to obtain information in the absence of any packets sent
from the listening system to the targets. Each method has their
advantages, and their limitations.
By now nearly everyone is familiar with active scanning methods. The
premier port scanning tool, nmap, has been equipped for some time now with
accurate active scanning measures. This code is based off of an earlier
tool, queso, from the group The Apostols. Nmap's author, Fyodor, has
written an excellent paper on this topic in the e-zine Phrack (issue 54
article 9)<4>. Ofir Arkin has been using ICMP bit handling to
differentiate between certain types of operating systems<5>. Because ICMP
usually slips below the threshold of analysis, and most of the ICMP
messages used are legitimate, the detection of this scanning can be more
difficult than, say, queso or nmap fingerprinting.
The problems with active scanning are mainly twofold: first, we can
readily firewall the packets used to fingerprint our system, obfuscating
the information; secondly, we can detect it quite easily. Because of this,
it is less attractive for a truly stealthy adversary.
In a message dated June 30, 1999, Photon posted to the nmap-hackers list
with some ideas of passive operating system fingerprinting<6>. He set up a
webpage with some of his thoughts, which has since been taken down. In
short, by using default IP packet construction behavior, including default
TTL values, the presence of the DF bit, and the like, one can gain a
confident level of the system's OS.
These ideas were quickly picked up by others and several lines of research
have been active since then. Lance Spitzer's paper<7> dated May 24, 2000,
on passive fingerprinting included many of the data needed to build such a
tool. In fact, two quickly appeared, one from Craig Smith<8>, and another
tool called p0f from Michael Zalewski<9>.
One very interesting tool that is under active development, extending the
earlier work, is Siphon. By utilizing not only IP stack behavior, but also
routing information and spanning tree updates, a complete network map can
be built over time. Passive port scans also take place, adding to the
data. This tool promises to be truly useful for the white hat, and a
patient black hat.
One limitation of these methods, though, is that they only provide a
measure of the operating system. Vulnerabilities may or may not exist, and
further investigations must be undertaken to evaluate if this is the case.
While suitable for the white hat for most purposes (like accounting), this
is not suitable to a would-be attacker. Simply put, more information is
An Alternative Approach
An alternative method to merely fingerprinting the operating system is to
perform an identification by using client applications. Quite a number of
network clients send revealing information about their host systems,
either directly or indirectly. We use application level information to map
back to the operating system, either directly or indirectly.
One very large advantage to the method described here is that in some
situations, much more accurate information can be gained about the client.
Because of stack similarities, most Windows systems, including 95, 98 and
NT 4.0, look too similar to differentiate. The client application,
however, is willing to reveal this information.
This provides not only a measure of the target's likely operating system,
but also a likely vector for entrance. Most of these client applications
have numerous security holes, to which one can point malicious data. In
some cases, this can provide the key information needed to begin
infiltrating a network, and one can proceed more rapidly. In most cases it
provides a starting point for the analysis of vulnerabilities of a
One major limitation of this method, however, comes when a system is
emulating another to provide access to client software. This includes Solaris
and SCO's support for Linux binaries. As such, under these circumstances,
the data should be taken with some caution and evaluated in the presence
of other information. This limitation, however, is similar to the
limitation that IP stack tweaking can place on passive fingerprinting at
the IP level, or the effect on active scanning from these adjustments or
Four different type of network clients are discussed here which provide
suitable fingerprinting information. Email clients, which leave telltale
information in most cases on their messages; Usenet clients, which, like
mail applications, litter their posts with client system information;
web browsers, which send client information with each request; and even
the ubiquitous telnet client, which sends such information more quietly,
but can just as effectively fingerprint an operating system.
Knowing this, one now only needs to harvest the network for this
information and map it to source addresses. Various tools, including
sniffers, both generic and specialized, and even web searches will yield
this information. A rapid analysis of systems can be quickly performed.
This works quite well for the white hat and the black hat hacker, as well.
In this paper is described a low tech approach to fingerprinting systems
for both their operating system and a likely route to gaining entry. By
using application level data sent from them over the network, we can
quickly gather accurate data about a system. In some cases, one doesn't
even have to be on the same network as the targets, they can gather the
information from afar, compile the information and use it at their
discretion at a later date.
One of the largest type of traffic the network sees is electronic mail.
Nearly everyone who uses the Internet on a regular basis uses email in
those transaction sessions. They not only receive mail, but also send a
good amount of mail, too. Because it is ubiquitous, it makes an especially
attractive avenue for system fingerprinting and ultimately penetration.
Within the headers of nearly every mail message is some form of system
identification. Either through the use of crafted message identification
tags, as used by Eudora and Pine, or by explicit header information, such
as headers generated by OutLook clients or CDE mail clients.
The scope of this method, both in terms of information gained and the
potential impact, should not be underestimated. If anything, viruses that
spread by email, including ones that are used to steal passwords from
systems, should illustrate the effectiveness of this method.
An Example: Pine
Pine itself is one of the worst offenders of any application for the
system it is on. It gives away a whole host of information useful to an
attacker in one fell swoop. To wit<10>:
Message-ID: <Pine.LNX.4.10.9907191137080.14866-100000 () somehost example ca>
It is clear it's Pine, we know the version (4.10), and we know the system
type. Too much about it, in fact. This is a list of the main ports of
Pine as of 4.30:
a41 IBM RS/6000 running AIX 4.1 or 4.2
a32 IBM RS/6000 running AIX 3.2 or earlier
aix IBM S/370 AIX
aos AOS for IBM RT (untested)
aux Macintosh A/UX
bsd BSD 4.3
bs3 BSDi BSD/386 Version 3 and Version 4
bs2 BSDi BSD/386 Version 2
bsi BSDi BSD/386 Version 1
dpx Bull DPX/2 B.O.S.
d54 Data General DG/UX 5.4
d41 Data General DG/UX 4.11 or earlier
d-g Data General DG/UX (even earlier)
ult DECstation Ultrix 4.1 or 4.2
gul DECstation Ultrix using gcc compiler
vul VAX Ultrix
os4 Digital Unix v4.0
osf DEC OSF/1 v2.0 and Digital Unix (OSF/1) 3.n
sos DEC OSF/1 v2.0 with SecureWare
epx EP/IX System V
gen Generic port
hpx Hewlett Packard HP-UX 10.x
hxd Hewlett Packard HP-UX 10.x with DCE security
ghp Hewlett Packard HP-UX 10.x using gcc compiler
hpp Hewlett Packard HP-UX 8.x and 9.x
shp Hewlett Packard HP-UX 8.x and 9.x with Trusted Computer Base
gh9 Hewlett Packard HP-UX 8.x and 9.x using gcc compiler
isc Interactive Systems Unix
lnx Linux using crypt from the C library
lnp Linux using Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
slx Linux using -lcrypt to get the crypt function
sl4 Linux using -lshadow to get the crypt() function
sl5 Linux using shadow passwords, no extra libraries
lyn Lynx Real-Time System (Lynxos)
mct Tenon MachTen (Mac)
osx Macintosh OS X
nxt NeXT 68030's and 68040's Mach 2.0
bso OpenBSD with shared-lib
sc5 SCO Open Server 5.x
sco SCO Unix
pt1 Sequent Dynix/ptx v1.4
ptx Sequent Dynix/ptx
dyn Sequent Dynix (not ptx)
sgi Silicon Graphics Irix
sg6 Silicon Graphics Irix >= 6.5
so5 Sun Solaris >= 2.5
gs5 Sun Solaris >= 2.5 using gcc compiler
so4 Sun Solaris <= 2.4
gs4 Sun Solaris <= 2.4 using gcc compiler
sun Sun SunOS 4.1
ssn Sun SunOS 4.1 with shadow password security
gsu SunOS 4.1 using gcc compiler
s40 Sun SunOS 4.0
sv4 System V Release 4
uw2 UnixWare 2.x and 7.x
wnt Windows NT 3.51
Pine system types used in Message-ID tags as of Pine 4.30. This table
was gathered from the supported systems listed in the Pine source code
documentation, in the file pine4.30/doc/pine-ports, and was edited for
Hence, with the above message ID, one knows the target's hostname, an
account on that machine that reads mail using Pine, and that it's Linux
without shadowed passwords (the LNX host type). Hang out on a mailing
list, maybe something platform agnostic, and collect targets. In this
case, one could use a well known exploit within the mail message, grab the
system password file and send it back to ourselves for analysis. This can
easily scaled to as many clients as has been fingerprinted; one mass
mailing, and sit back and wait for the password files to come in.
Other Mail Clients
This is not to say that other mail clients are not vulnerable to such
information leaks. Most mail clients give out similar information, either
directly or indirectly. Direct information would be an entry in the
message headers, such as an X-Mailer tag. Indirect information would be
similar to that seen for Pine, a distinctive message ID tag. When this
information is coupled to the information about the originating host, a
fingerprint can occur rapidly.
X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook Express 5.00.3018.1300
X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V5.00.3018.1300
X-Mailer: dtmail 1.2.1 CDE Version 1.2.1 SunOS 5.6 sun4u sparc
X-Mailer: PMMail 2000 Professional (2.10.2010) For Windows 2000 (5.0.2195)
X-Mailer: QUALCOMM Windows Eudora Version 4.3.2
Message-ID: <188.8.131.52.2.20001117142518.043ad100 () mailserver3 somewhere gov>
While not all clients give out their host system or processors, such as
Mutt or Outlook Express, this information can be used by itself to get a
larger vulnerability assessment. For example, if we know what version
strings appear only on Windows, as opposed to a MacOS system, we can
determine the processor type. The dtmail application is entirely too
friendly to someone determining vulnerabilities, giving up the processor
and OS revision. Given the problems that have appeared in the CDE suite,
and in older versions of Solaris, an attack would be all too easy to
Finding such information
There are two main avenues for finding this information for lots of
clients quickly. First, we can sniff the network for this information.
Using a tool like mailsnarf, ngrep or any sniffer with some basic
filtering, a modest collection of host to client application data can be
gathered. The speed of collection and the ultimate size of this database
depends chiefly on the amount of traffic your network segment sees. This
is the main drawback to this method, a limited amount of data.
A much more efficient method, and one that can make use of this above
information, is in offline (for the target with respect to the potential
attacker) system fingerprinting, with an exploit path included. How do we
do this? We search the web, with it's repleat mailing list archives, and
we turn up some boxes.
Altavista: 2,033 pages found (for pine.ult)
Google results 1-10 of about 141,000 for pine.lnx
Altavista: 16,870 pages found (for pine.osf)
You get the idea. Tens of thousands of hits, thousands of potentially
exploitable boxes ready to be picked. Simply evaluate the source host
information and map it to the client data and a large database of
vulnerable hosts is rapidly built.
The exploits are easy. Every week, new exploits are found in client
software, either mail applications like Pine, or methods to deliver
exploits using mail software. Examples of this include the various buffer
overflows that have appeared (and persist) in Pine and OutLook, the
delivery of malicious DLL files using Eudora attachments, and such. We
know from viruses like ILOVEYOU and Melissa that more people than not will
open almost any mail message, and we know from spammers that it's trivial
to bulk send messages with forged headers, making traceback difficult.
These two items combine to make for a very readily available exploit.
In a manner similar to electronic mail, Usenet clients leave significant
information in the headers of their posts which reveal information about
their host operating systems. One great advantage to Usenet, as opposed to
email or even web traffic, is that posts are distributed. As such, we can
be remote and collect data on hosts without their knowledge or ever having
to gain entry into their network.
Among the various newsreaders commonly used, copious host info is included
in the headers. The popular UNIX newsreader 'tin' is among the worst
offenders of revealing host information. Operating system versions,
processors and applications are all listed in the 'User-Agent' field, and
when coupled to the NNTP-Posting-Host information, a remote host
fingerprint has been performed:
User-Agent: tin/1.5.2-20000206 ("Black Planet") (UNIX) (SunOS/5.6(sun4u))
User-Agent: tin/pre-1.4-980226 (UNIX) (FreeBSD/2.2.7-RELEASE (i386))
User-Agent: tin/1.4.2-20000205 ("Possession") (UNIX) (Linux/2.2.13(i686))
The standard web browsers also leave copious information about themselves
and their host systems, as they do with HTTP requests and mail. We will
elaborate on web clients in the next section, but they are also a problem
as Usenet clients:
X-Http-User-Agent: Mozilla/4.75 (Windows NT 5.0; U)
X-Mailer: Mozilla 4.75 (X11; U; Linux 2.2.16-3smpi686)
And several other clients also leave verbose information about their hosts
to varying degrees. Again, when combined with the NNTP-Posting-Host or
other identifying header, one can begin to amass information about hosts
without too much work:
Message-ID: <Pine.LNX.4.21.0010261126210.32652-100000 () host example co nz>
User-Agent: MT-NewsWatcher/3.0 (PPC)
X-Operating-System: GNU/Linux 2.2.16
User-Agent: Gnus/5.0807 (Gnus v5.8.7) XEmacs/21.1 (Bryce Canyon)
X-Newsreader: Microsoft Outlook Express 5.50.4133.2400
X-Newsreader: Forte Free Agent 1.21/32.243
X-Newsreader: WinVN 0.99.9 (Released Version) (x86 32bit)
Either directly or indirectly, we can fingerprint the operating system
over the source host. Other programs are not so forthcoming, but still
leak information about a host that can be used to determine vulnerability
X-Newsreader: KNode 0.1.13
User-Agent: Pan/0.9.1 (Unix)
X-Newsreader: trn 4.0-test74 (May 26, 2000)
X-Newsreader: knews 1.0b.0 (mrsam/980423)
User-Agent: slrn/0.9.5.7 (UNIX)
X-Newsreader: InterChange (Hydra) News v3.61.08
None of these header fields are required by the specifications for NNTP,
as noted in RFC 2980. They provide only some additional information about
the host which was the source of the data. However, given that more
transactions that concern the servers are between servers, this data is
entirely extraneous. It is, it appears, absent from RFC 977, the original
specification for NNTP.
On interesting possibility to exploiting a user agent like Mozilla is to
examine the accepted languages. In the below example, we see not only
English is supported, but that the browser is linked to Acrobat. Given
potential holes, and past problems<11>, with malicious PDF files, this
could be another avenue to gaining entry to a host.
X-Mailer: Mozilla 4.75 (Win98; U)
While this may seem that we're limited to fingerprinting hosts, or out of
luck if they are using a proxy, this is not the case. We can also
retrieve proxy info from the headers. Recall recent problems with
X-Http-Proxy: 1.0 x72.deja.com:80 (Squid/1.1.22) for client 10.32.34.18
While in this case the proxy is disconnected from the client's network, if
this were a border proxy, we could use this to gain information about a
possible entry point to the network and, over time and with enough sample
data, information about the network behind the protected border.
Using Web Traffic
A remarkably simple and highly effective means of fingerprinting a target
is to follow the web browsing that gets done from it. Most every system in
use is a workstation, and nearly everyone uses their web browsers to spend
part of their day. And just about every browser sends too much information
in it's 'User-Agent' field.
RFC 1945<13> notes that the 'User-Agent' field is not required in an HTTP
1.0 request, but can be used. The authors state, "user agents should
include this field with requests." They cite statistics as well as on the
fly tailoring of data to meet features or limitations of browsers. The
draft standard for HTTP version 1.1 requests, RFC 2616, also notes similar
usage of the 'User-Agent' field.
We can gather this information in two ways. First, we could run a website
and turn on logging of the User-Agent field from the client (if it's not
already on). Simply generate a lot of hits and watch the data come in. Get
on Slashdot, advertise some pornographic material, or mirror some popular
software (like warez) and you're ready to go. Secondly, we can sniff web
traffic on our visible segment. While almost any sniffer will work, one of
the easiest for this type of work is urlsnarf from the dsniff package from
Examples of browsers that send not only their application information,
such as the browser and the version, but also the operating system which
the host runs include:
Netscape (UNIX, MacOS, and Windows)
One shining example of a browser that doesn't send extraneous information
is Lynx. On both 2.7 and 2.8 versions, only the browser information is
sent, no information about the host.
The User-Agent field can be important to the web server for legitimate
reasons. Due to implementations, both Netscape and Explorer are not
equivalent on many items, including how they handle tables, scripting and
style sheets. However, host information is not needed and is sent
A typical request from a popular browser looks like this:
GET / HTTP/1.0
User-Agent: Mozilla/4.08 (X11; I; SunOS 5.7 sun4u)
Accept: image/gif, image/x-xbitmap, image/jpeg, image/pjpeg, image/png, */*
The User-Agent field is littered with extra information that we don't need
to know: the operating system type, version and even the hardware being
Instantly we know everything there is to know about compromising this
host: the operating system, the host's architecture, and even a route we
could use to gain entry. For example a recent problems in Netscape's JPEG
Using urlsnarf to log these transactions is the easiest method to sniff
this information from the network. A typical line of output is below:
10.10.1.232 - - "GET http://www.latino.com/
HTTP/1.0" - - "http://www.latino.com/" "Mozilla/4.07 (Win95; I ;Nav)"
We can also use the tool ngrep<16> to listen to this information on the
wire. A simple filter to listen only to packets that contain the
information 'User-Agent' can be set up and used to log information about
hosts on the network.
A simple regular expression filter can do the trick:
ngrep -qid ep1 'User-Agent' tcp port 80
This will print out all TCP packets which contain the case insensitive
string User-Agent in them. And, within this field, for too many browsers,
is too much information about the host. With the above options to ngrep,
typical output will look like this:
T 10.10.11.43:1860 -> 184.108.40.206:80
GET /entrez/query/query.js HTTP/1.1..Accept: */*..Referer: http://www.
ge: en-us..Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate..If-Modified-Since: Thu, 29
Jun 2000 18:38:45 GMT; length=4558..User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatibl
e; MSIE 5.5; Windows 98)..Host: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov..Connection: Keep
-Alive..Cookie: WebEnv=FpEB]AfeA>>Hh^`Ba@<]^d]bCJfdADh@(j)@ =^a=T=EjIE=b<F
Even more information is contained within the request than urlsnarf showed
us, information including cookies.
Web Server Fingerprinting
In much the same way as one can use the strings sent during requests by
the clients to determine what system type is in use, one can follow the
replies sent back by the server to determine what type it is. Again we
will use ngrep, this time matching the expression 'server:' to gather the
web server type:
T 192.168.0.5:80 -> 192.168.0.1:1033
HTTP/1.0 200 OK..Server: Netscape-FastTrack/2.01..Date: Mon, 30 Oct 20
00 00:15:31 GMT..Content-type: text/html....
While specifics about the operating system information are lost, this
works to passively gather vulnerability information about the target
server. This can be coupled to other information to decide how best to
proceed with an attack.
This information will not be covered as this paper is limited to client
applications and systems being fingerprinted.
While telnet is no longer in widespread use due to the fact that all of
its data is sent in plain text, including authentication data, it is still
used widely enough to be of use in fingerprinting target systems. What is
interesting is that it not only gives us a mechanism to gather operating
system data, it gives us the particular application in use, which can be
of value in determining a mechanism of entry.
This method of system fingerprinting is not unique to this paper. At
Hope2k in New York City in the summer of 2000, I saw this demonstrated by
a security analyst from Bell Labs. He had a honey-pot system set up that
one would telnet to. An application would fingerprint the client and hence
the operating system. While I do not recall his name, his research is
acknowledged here as my introduction of this method of system
The specification for the telnet protocol describes a negotiation between
the client and the host for information such as line speed, terminal type
and echoing<17>. What is interesting to note is that each client behaves
in a unique way, even different client applications on the same host type.
Similarly, the telnet server, running a telnet daemon, can be
fingerprinted by following the negotiations with the client. This
information can be viewed from the telnet command line application on a
UNIX host by issuing the 'toggle options' command at the telnet> prompt.
This information can be gather directly, using a wedge application, or a
honey-pot as demonstrated on the network at Hope2k, or it can be sniffed
off the network in a truly passive fashion. We discuss below gathering
data about both the client system and the server being connected to. The
same principles apply to both host identification methods.
Fingerprinting Telnet Clients
The negotiations described above, and in the references listed, can be
used to fingerprint the client based upon the options set and the order in
which they are negotiated. Table 1 describes the behavior of several
telnet clients in these respects. Their differences are immediately
obvious, even for different clients on the same operating system, such as
Tera Term Pro and Windows Telnet on a Windows 95 host.
In this table, all server commands and negotiation options are ignored and
only data originating from the client is shown.
Shown here are the options and the order in which they are sent from
three telnet clients.The IRIX 6.5 system was the stock telnet client
with no special arguments. The Windows system used was Windows 95B,
using either Tera Term Pro 2.3 or the built in telnet client. In all
cases an OpenBSD telnet server, with all Kerberos options turned off,
was used as the connection target. Data was captured using the tool
Ethereal and decoded by the application.
[ TABLE OMITTED IN ASCII VERSION, PLEASE SEE PDF OR PS ]
Some operating systems, such as IRIX, use a specific and particular
terminal type. However, this is usually not a good metric of the operating
system, as it can be spoofed or ambiguous, with a value such as vt100 or
xterm. Instead, the value and order of various commands sent by the
client can be used to distinguish hosts and applications. For example,
Windows doesn't set the terminal speed, Linemode options or accept new
environmental options. To differentiate between the normal Windows telnet
client or Tera Term Pro, one can look for the option to negotiate a window
size, for example.
Space only permits the above three clients to be shown. However, as one
can imagine, differences both striking and subtle exist between the
Fingerprinting Telnet Servers
Obviously, the most direct method to fingerprint a server would be to
connect to it and examine the order of options and their values as a
telnet session was negotiated. However, as this study is concerned with
passive scanning of clients, we will leave it to the reader to map this
information and learn what to do with it.
In this paper has been illustrated the effectiveness of target system
identification by using the information provided by network client
applications. This provides a very efficient and precise measure of the
client operating system, as well as identifying a vector for attack. This
information is sent gratuitously and is not essential to the normal
operation of many of these applications.
The main limitation of this information is found when a host is performing
emulation of another operating system to run the client software. While
this is rare, it could lead to a false system identification. This mainly
falls in the open software world, however, and only for some operating
The scope of this information should not be underestimated. There are some
who will note that all one will likely gain on a UNIX system is an
unprivilidged account. This may be, however, what we are after, the access
that a particular user may have to other valuable data. We may only want
their system privilidges, ie for packet generation in a DDoS network. For
non-UNIX systems, the impact is well illustrated by the October, 2000,
compromise of the Microsoft Corporation network, where access was gained
to the source code of Windows and the Office suite. Repeating what is said
often, your perimeter is only as strong as its weakest link.
Similarly, there are some that will note that some of these attacks, such
as using the mail or Usenet client as a vector for entry, require a bit of
social engineering. While this is true, it is by no means any less of a
threat. Numerous times we have seen that people will read almost any email
message that shows up in their inbox. Usenet engineering is even easier:
simply reply to a message posted, such as a question, and the person is
almost certain to read the reply.
As such, for the black hat, this represents a quick method of passively
gathering target host information as well as a likely vector of attack.
For the white hat, it suffices to map a network with respect to operating
system and vulnerable application.
Recommendations for Mitigating the Risks
Would that the world were perfect, or at least software engineers were not
prone to errors, this information would not be usable against a host.
However, we exist in a world with operating systems littered with security
problems and applications that are poorly programmed, ready to exploit. If
we lived in an ideal world, but we do not.
For web browsers, which are ubiquitous and used by nearly everyone on the
Internet, the host operating system should not be sent. Ideally,
information about what protocols are spoken, what standards are met and
what language are supported (ie English, German, French) should suffice.
Lynx behaves nearly ideally in this regard, and both Netscape and Explorer
should follow this lead.
With respect to Usenet and electronic mail clients, again only what
features are supported should be provided. Pine is an example of how bad
it can get, providing too much information about a host too quickly. There
is no reason why any legitimate client should know what processor and OS
is being run on the sending host.
Telnet clients are far more difficult. It is tempting to say that all
telnet applications should support the same set of features, but that is
Proxy hosts should be used, if possible, to strip off information about
the originating system, including the workstation address and operating
system information. This will help obscure needed information to map a
network from outside the perimeter. Coupled with strong measures to catch
viruses and malicious code, such as in a web page script, the risks should
be greatly reduced.
The best solution is for application authors to not send gratuitous
information in their headers or requests. Furthermore, client applications
should be scrutinized to the same degree as daemons that run with
administrative privilidges. The lessons of RFC 1123 most certainly apply
at this level.
In the intervening time, those with access to the source code of their
network clients may want to consider removing gratuitous host information
from their request packets or headers. This, however, doesn't apply to
most users, and those that know about this method already practice this
This work was inspired largely by Photon's post in 1999 to the
nmap-hackers list. It seems a great deal of other research, and proof of
concept tools, has been initiated by this message. To them I extend my
thanks, they've helped to provide me with hours of diversions and thought
experiments. Also, I am thankful to the authors of the tools used in this
study, especially Dug Song for his dsniff package, and Jordan Ritter for
ngrep. As always, I am indebted to the people I work with at crimelabs,
as well, especially Kosher Egyptian Rabbit and Jesus, with whom I have had
numerous productive conversations on this topic. Rick Wash and Merlin were
most helpful in their critical review of this manuscript and their helpful
<1>: Available from http://www.subterrain.net/projects/siphon/ .
<2>: Available from http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ .
<3>: Available from http://www.apostols.org/.
<4>: This is definitely a must read to understanding how active, and hence
passive, scanning occurs. Obtain this article from
<5>: These papers can be found online at http://www.sys-security.com/ .
<6>: This note is available from the MARC archives of the nmap-hackers
list, at http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/ .
<7>: Please see http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/pubs.html for this paper.
<8>: This tool can be found at
<9>: p0f can be found at http://lcamtuf.hack.pl/p0f.tgz .
<10>: I have tried to sanitize all network addresses or hostnames. If I
missed a few, it was inadvertant, and I apologize. You should be running
more secure software, anyhow.
<11>: See BUGTRAQ vulnerabilities with ID's 666 and 1509 at
http://www.securityfocus.com/ for more information
<12>: See BUGTRAQ ID's 471 and 89 at http://www.securityfocus.com/.
<13>: This and all other listed RFC's are available from the IETF website
at http://www.ietf.org/ .
<14>: This package is available at http://www.monkey.org/~dugsong/dsniff/
<15>: See BUGTRAQ ID 1503 for more information.
<16>: ngrep can be obtained from the PacketFactory website,
<17>: For descriptive information on these options and their negotiations,
please see RFCs 857, 858, 859, 860, 1091, 1073, 1079, 1184, 1372, and
1408. Also, see TCP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols by W. Richard
- Crimelabs Paper: Passive System Fingerprinting using Network Client Applications jose nazario (Jan 17)