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Multiple vulnerabilities in UFO2000 svn 1057
From: Luigi Auriemma <aluigi () autistici org>
Date: Sun, 16 Jul 2006 17:37:01 +0200


#######################################################################

                             Luigi Auriemma

Application:  UFO2000
              http://ufo2000.sourceforge.net
Versions:     <= SVN 1057
Platforms:    Windows, *nix, *BSD, Mac and more
Bugs:         A] buffer-overflow in recv_add_unit
              B] invalid memory access in decode_stringmap
              C] possible code execution through arrays
              D] SQL injection
              E] mapdata global buffer overflow
Exploitation: A] remote, versus client
              B] remote, versus server
              C] remote, versus client
              D] remote, versus server
              E] remote, versus client
Date:         16 Jul 2006
Author:       Luigi Auriemma
              e-mail: aluigi () autistici org
              web:    aluigi.org


#######################################################################


1) Introduction
2) Bugs
3) The Code
4) Fix


#######################################################################

===============
1) Introduction
===============


UFO2000 is a multiplayer turn based game based on the X-COM series.


#######################################################################

=======
2) Bugs
=======

-----------------------------------
A] buffer-overflow in recv_add_unit
-----------------------------------

The command used for adding units (just the first command used at the
beginning of the challenge) is affected by a buffer-overflow
vulnerability which happens during the copying of the incoming data to
the name buffer of only 26 bytes.

From multiplay.cpp:

int Net::recv_add_unit()
{
    int num;
    char name[26];
    int cost;

    pkt >> num;
    pkt >> name;
    ...


--------------------------------------------
B] invalid memory access in decode_stringmap
--------------------------------------------

When a packet is received the server calls decode_stringmap which is
used for reading the number of informations (keys and values) contained
in the incoming data block and for their subsequent reading.
Here exist two problems:
- invalid size values can lead to the reading of the unallocated memory
  after the packet and to the subsequent crash of the server (for
  example keysize says to read 100 bytes while the packet is only 2
  bytes long)
- the server terminates if keysize or valsize are too big and cannot be
  allocated with the resize function

From server_transport.cpp:

bool decode_stringmap(std::map<std::string, std::string> &info, const void *buffer)
{
    const unsigned char *p = (const unsigned char *)buffer;
    unsigned int num = decode_unsigned_int(p);

    while (num--) {
        unsigned int keysize = decode_unsigned_int(p);
        unsigned int valsize = decode_unsigned_int(p);
        std::string key;
        key.resize(keysize);
        std::string val;
        val.resize(valsize);
        for (unsigned int i = 0; i < keysize; i++)
            key[i] = decode_unsigned_char(p);
        for (unsigned int i = 0; i < valsize; i++)
            val[i] = decode_unsigned_char(p);
        info[key] = val;
    }
    return true;
}


-----------------------------------------
C] possible code execution through arrays
-----------------------------------------

Some commands can be used for crashing the remote client/opponent
through invalid values (too big or negative) used for moving into the
internal arrays of the game.
Another effect is the possibility to execute malicious code, in fact
the game uses large numbers (usually signed 32 bit values) which can be
used to reach any location of the memory, then these commands allow
the writing of the data contained in the packet into these locations
like what happens with "pkt >> scenario->rules[index]" where our 32 bit
number (pkt >>) is copied in the location chosed by us with index.

These commands are recv_rules, recv_select_unit (select_unit checks
only if num if major not minor), recv_options and recv_unit_data (with
a negative value or minor than 19).

From multiplay.cpp:

int Net::recv_rules()
{
    int index;
    
    pkt >> index;
    pkt >> scenario->rules[index];
    ...


----------------
D] SQL injection
----------------

The server uses an internal SQL database for handling accounts and
other informations about the matches.
In the points where is used the user's input and the %s format argument
instead of %q could be possible to inject own SQL commands in the query
prepared by the server.

From server_protocol.cpp:

bool ServerClientUfo::recv_packet(NLuint id, const std::string &raw_packet)
        ...
        case SRV_GAME_REPLAY_REQUEST: {
            send_packet_back(SRV_GAME_RECOVERY_START, "1");
            try {
                debug_game_id = atol(packet.c_str());
                sqlite3::reader reader=db_conn.executereader("select command, packet_type, id from ufo2000_game_packets 
where game=%s order by id;", packet.c_str());
        ...


---------------------------------
E] mapdata global buffer overflow
---------------------------------

mapdata is a global buffer declared in main.cpp as a GEODATA structure
of 56 bytes which can be overflowed through the recv_map_data function.
The effect is the immediate crash of the opponent.

From multiplay.cpp:

int Net::recv_map_data()
{
    std::string map_name;
    std::string map_data;
    pkt >> map_name;
    pkt >> mapdata.x_size;
    pkt >> mapdata.y_size;
    pkt >> mapdata.z_size;
    pkt >> map_data;
    ASSERT((int)map_data.size() == mapdata.x_size * mapdata.y_size);
    memcpy(&mapdata.mapdata, map_data.data(), map_data.size());
    ....


#######################################################################

===========
3) The Code
===========


No proof-of-concept available.

The following is a quick introduction about how server and client work
for understanding the possible exploitation of these bugs.
The server simply acts as a place where clients can meet themselves and
can start 1vs1 challenges.
The server could also disallow anonyomous logins, using just accounts
which require a valid username and password.
In each challenge the work of the server is only that of forwarding the
packets from and to the clients, so they are in a virtual direct
communication and their vulnerabilities can be exploited by both
malicious clients and servers.
The packets exchanged in the lobby are handled by the server (SRV_*)
while those during the challenge by the clients (CMD_*).


#######################################################################

======
4) Fix
======


Some of the most critical bugs have been fixed in SVN 1058 while the
remaining in revision 1061.


#######################################################################


--- 
Luigi Auriemma
http://aluigi.org
http://mirror.aluigi.org


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