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Re: Cross-Site Scripting - an industry-wide problem
From: "morning_wood" <se_cur_ity () hotmail com>
Date: Thu, 23 Dec 2004 22:42:04 -0800

quite commom, funny because xss can be used in PHISHING attacks.
instead of <alert blah> try some html redirects to a hosted site with a fake
spoofing the original content ( a login page ) and capture username/password
then pass them to the real login page.
or better yet... xss dos attacks, like.
alert("oh no")

but i guess xss is just kiddi play... or is it?


Cross-Site Scripting - an industry-wide problem

In early december i started a series of tests to find Cross-Site Scripting
(XSS) vulnerabilities. It quickly turned out that the majority of all
websites suffer some kind of XSS. This is a disclosure of 175
vulnerabilities at once. Enjoy the ride...

Test scenario

A site was considered affected if it is possible to inject a javascript
the output page by making a browser GET or POST request to the webserver.
a proof-of-concept the script "alert(document.cookie)" got used.

All tests were made on a fully patched WinXP SP2 machine and Internet
Explorer 6. Most of the proof-of-concept links in this report will not
using another browser, mainly because in many cases i used javascript in
styles which isn't supported by browsers like Firefox and because Firefox
automaticly applies character encoding to a URL. I was just too lazy to
each issue cross-browser, so this doesn't mean automaticly that Internet
Explorer is more vulnerable to XSS.


In many cases XSS is reduced to the attack of stealing session cookies,
XSS can be used to do a lot more things. Using DOM manipulation you can
change the target of a login form or fake one, change download links or
simply insert your own content into a website. As part of mass-mailings
can be used for login data phishing, spreading of malware or distribution
false news that seem to come from a trustworthy source (which is an
intresting option for daytraders on penny stocks for example).

Don't forget that the injected script is running in the security context
the affected site. If you know who you are attacking and that the victim
the affected site in a special trusted zone it can be possible to execute
"not safe for scripting" ActiveX controls - giving you more or less total
control. In intranets and for extranet web applications this is a not so
uncommon configuration.

For sure XSS is nothing compared to a remote buffer overflow. But only
because this "worst case scenario" is happening quite often these days, it
does not mean XSS is not a security issue. XSS flaws are easy to find and
spammers are always searching for new stuff.

Finally for some sites on the list dedicated to security a XSS flaw is
an embarrassing thing ;)

Affected sites

This list is reduced to the second-level domain for readability and
size. This isn't always fair since sometimes a sub-domain is indepentend
from the SLD. Please download the complete list of proof-of-concept links
from http://www.mikx.de/xss.php.

All webmasters were informed by an email and/or their website feedback
during december, to give them a fair chance to react. Some of them replied
really quick and patched the issue in a few hours, others (sadly a lot)
never replied. If you are responsible for one of the affected sites and
have not been informed or are not able to reproduce the issue, please
hesitate to contact me.

The sites in the tests were picked at random from international and german
major websites and/or sites related to security/computers. I just tested
what came to my head - so there is no "hidden message":

about.com, activestate.com, adobe.com, altavista.com, amazon.com, amd.com,
annoyances.org, aol.com, apache.org, apple.com , archive.org, arcor.de,
ask.com, ati.com, bahn.de, bitdefender.de, blizzard.com, blogdex.net,
blogger.com, bloogz.com, ca.com, ccc.de, cdu.de, chip.de, ciao.de,
chillingeffects.org, cnn.com, comdirect.de, consors.de, csialliance.org,
csu.de, dell.com, daypop.com, divx.com, dooyoo.de, doubleclick.com,
download.com, easycredit.de, ebay.com, etrade.com, evite.com, excite.com,
fedex.com, fimatex.de, flexwiki.com, fool.com, free-av.de, freshmeat.net,
fsf.org, fujitsu.com, gamestar.de, gm.com, gmx.net, gnu.org, go.com,
golem.de, google.com, groupee.com, gruene-partei.de, guenstiger.de,
heise.de, hosting.com, hp.com, ibm.com, icq.com, idealo.de,
infineon.com, informationsecurityireland.com, infospace.com, intel.com,
itaa.org, izb.de, jamba.de , juno.com, kde.org, kelkoo.de, kerio.com,
liberale.de, linspire.com, looksmart.com, lufthansa.com, lycos.com,
macromedia.com, mandrakesoft.com, mayflower.de, mcafee.com, meetup.com,
messagelabs.com, metacrawler.com, metadot.com, microsoft.com, mlb.com,
mnogosearch.org, modblog.com, modssl.org, mozilla.org, mozillazine.org,
msdn.com, msn.com, msnbc.com, nasa.gov, nationalgeographic.com, nba.com,
netiq.com, nfl.com, netflix.com, netscape.com, nokia.com, novell.com,
nytimes.com, onlinekosten.de, opencores.org, openssl.org, opera.com,
oracle.com, paypal.com, pc-magazin.de, pcpowerplay.de, pcwelt.de,
phpcenter.de, pmwiki.org, privacy.org, pro7.de, ptb.de, postgresql.org,
quoka.de, reactos.com, real.com, redhat.com, redvsblue.com, riaa.com,
rtl.de, ryanair.com, sans.org, sbroker.de, securityfocus.com,
securityspace.com, shutterfly.com, slashdot.org, snocap.com, sony.com,
sourceforge.net, sparkasse.de, spd.de, spreadfirefox.com, squid-cache.org,
sqlite.org, staysafeonline.com, stern.de, strato.de, sun.com, suse.de,
technorati.com, telekombusiness.de, theonion.com, tiscali.com,
tomshardware.com, uci.edu , ups.com , upside.de, us-cert.gov,
varbusiness.com, vasoftware.com, viruslist.com, w3.org, web.de,
worldofwarcraft.com, wsj.com, xoom.com, yahoo.com, yopi.de, zonelabs.com


It turned out that in some cases third party software used on the websites
are suffering a bug. Here the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures
(cve.mitre.org) names:

CAN-2004-1059 mnogosearch (as used at www.redhat.com)
CAN-2004-1061 bugzilla (as used at bugzilla.mozilla.org bug #272620)
CAN-2004-1062 viewcvs (as used at cvs.apache.org)
CAN-2004-1146 cvstrac (as used at cvs.openssl.org)



I woud like to thank a few people for helping me out through the tests and
working on fixing the issues as quickly as possible:

Christoph "Locke" Wehrmann (for making me addicted to XSS)
Mark J Cox (Red Hat Security Response Team)
Daniel Bachfeld (heisec)
Jamie McCarthy and Chris Nandor (slashcode)
Alexander Barkov (mnogosearch)
Microsoft Security Response Center
Google Security Team
Bugzilla Team
Everybody who responded to my report mail :)


Michael Krax <mikx () mikx de>

Happy Holidays!

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