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[RFC] Vulnerability library proposal
From: Djalal Harouni <tixxdz () opendz org>
Date: Sun, 7 Aug 2011 00:40:45 +0100

Hi list,

This is a proposal for a new NSE vulnerability library. The library is
designed to help managing discovered vulnerabilities and to make the
output more consistent.

It would be really great if we can have suggestions from pen-testers and
from people that integrate and use Nmap in their security tools.
Thanks in advance.



vulns library
-------------


Table:
------
1) Functionality.
2) portrule and hostrule scripts.
3) prerule and postrule scripts (vulnerability management scripts).


Note: when we say post-processing scripts we are referring to postrule
scripts.


1) Functionality:
-----------------
* This library is only for managing reported vulnerabilities.

* The library must produce consistent output for all vulnerabilities.

* The library should be able to silently store the vulnerabilities
  information in the registry for post-processing.

* The library should also store and report vulnerabilities that have been
  checked but aren't present (not vulnerable, patched, etc).

* The library must handle different states:
  UNKNOWN:  We don't know the state of the vulnerability.
  LIKELY_VULN: The program seems vulnerable (check and compare versions)
  NOT_VULN: The program was confirmed not to be vulnerable.
  VULN: The program was confirmed to be vulnerable.

* The library will accept different IDs ('CVE', 'OSVDB', 'YOUR_DB', etc),
  which are used to reference and to map vulnerability entries. Duplicate
  entries that are reported by several scripts must also be handled, and
  in this case the vulnerabilities state can also be updated.
  (i.e. from 'LIKELY_VULN' to 'NOT_VULN' or from 'LIKELY_VULN' to 'VULN')


Vulnerabilities will be saved in the registry (global database) only
when a post-processing script is selected by the user. The script will
set a special variable or call a function that will activate the global
vulnerability database, this way we do not wast memory and extra
processing, and the user will have the feature without specifying any
script argument.


2) portrule and hostrule scripts:
---------------------------------

Vulnerability table info:

  - Vulnerability title (mandatory field).
  - State: UNKNOWN, NOT_VULN, LIKELY_VULN, VULN (mandatory field).
  - IDS: CVE, OSVDB, BID ...  (mandatory field). The IDs entries will
                              help the library to reference
                              vulnerabilities and to track duplicate
                              ones.

  - "Risk factor": if present then show it (optional).
  - "References": reference links (optional).

  - "Description": vulnerability description (optional).
  
  - "Check results" (optional). This field can be the result of the
                  vulnerable check, did the server return anything ?
                  This can help specialists to investigate the results
                  and decide if the program is vulnerable or not.
  
  - "Exploitation results" (optional), if present then show it.
  
  - More information will be shown according to the debug level.


Vulnerability table example:

vuln_info = {

  -- mandatory fields
  title = 'Exim string_format Function Remote Overflow', -- string
  state = vulns.State.VULN, -- number
  IDS = {CVE = 'CVE-2010-4344', OSVDB = '69685'}, -- IDs map

  -- the following fields are all optional
  risk_factor = 'High', -- string
  description = 'vulnerability description ...', -- string
  references = { -- list of references
    'http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2010-4344&apos;,
    'http://osvdb.org/show/osvdb/69685&apos;,
  },

  -- these fields are all optional and they will not be saved in the
  -- global database (registry).
  check_results = '...', -- string
  exploit_results = '...', -- string
                           -- will probably be the result of table.concat()
  extra_info = '...', -- string (result of table.concat() or whatever)
  ...
}


Sample output:
Portrule/Hostrule output:
-- () output
-- PORT   STATE SERVICE
-- 25/tcp open  smtp
-- | smtp-vuln-cve2010-4344:
-- | Vulnerabilities:
-- |   Exim string_format Function Remote Overflow:
-- |     State: VULNERABLE
-- |     IDs:  CVE-2010-4344; OSVDB 69685
-- |     Risk factor: High
-- |     References:
-- |       http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2010-4344
-- |       http://osvdb.org/show/osvdb/69685
-- |  
-- |   Exim exim User Account Configuration File Directive Local privileges escalation:
-- |     State: VULNERABLE
-- |     IDs:  CVE-2010-4345; OSVDB 69860
-- |     Risk factor: High
-- |     References:
-- |_      http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2010-4345


API for portrule and hostrule scripts:
--------------------------------------

* Create and return a new local report object.
  local report = vulns.Report:new(SCRIPT_NAME, host, port)

  Note: SCRIPT_NAME, host and port information can be used by
  post-processing scripts.

* Report vulnerabilities.
  Arguments are: valid vulnerabilities tables.
  return report:make_output(vuln_table, ...)

* Add vulnerabilities.
  Arguments are: valid vulnerabilities tables.
  report:add(vuln_table, ...)
  return report:make_output()


General usage:
--------------
local report = vulns.Report:new(SCRIPT_NAME, host, port)
return report:make_output(vuln_table)



3) prerule and postrule scripts (vulnerability management scripts):
-------------------------------------------------------------------

* Scripts can make the vulns.lua store silently the vulnerability reports.
  
  The library can store silently all reported vulnerabilities, this is
  very useful for post-processing scripts (postrule) that produce final
  reports. To enable this feature these post-processing scripts must first
  call vulns.save_reports(), then any call to report:add(...) will
  automatically save vulnerabilities in the global database (registry).


* Vulnerability information for post-processing scripts:

  vuln_info = {

    script_name = "the name of the script that pushed me",

    -- If the 'host' table was specified when calling
    -- vulns.Report:new()
    -- e.g. local report = vulns.Report:new(SCRIPT_NAME, host)
    host = {
      ip = host.ip
      targetname = host.targetname,
      bin_ip = host.bin_ip,
    },

    -- If the 'host' and 'port' tables were specified when calling
    -- vulns.Report:new()
    -- e.g. local report = vulns.Report:new(SCRIPT_NAME, host, port)
    port = {
      number = port.number,
      protocol = port.protocol,
      service = port.service,
      version = port.version,
    }


    -- mandatory fields
    title = 'Exim string_format Function Remote Overflow', -- string
    state = vulns.State.VULN, -- number
    IDS = {CVE = 'CVE-2010-4344', OSVDB = '69685'}, -- IDs map

    -- the following fields are all optional
    risk_factor = 'High', -- string
    description = 'vulnerability description ...', -- string
    references = { -- list of references
      'http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2010-4344&apos;,
      'http://osvdb.org/show/osvdb/69685&apos;,
    },

  }


Functions list:
---------------
* Instruct the vulns library to store vulnerabilities reported by all the
  scripts in the database (registry). This function should be called by
  the prerule of one of the post-processing scripts.
  function vulns.save_reports()


The following functions have effects only if the vulns.save_reports() was
called.

* Add vulnerability IDs to the database.
  Note: the library will handle and add the appropriate ids that are found
  in the vuln_table, so you don't need to call this function.
  function vulns.add_ids()

* Get the IDS table.
  function vulns.get_ids()

* Add vulnerability entries to the database, however it's better for scripts
  to use the Report class (i.e. call report:add(vuln_table, ...) ).
  function vulns.add(script_name, vuln_table, ...)

* Search for the specified vulnerability ID and return true if there are
  hosts that are affected or were tested against this vulnerability.
  (All vulnerability states are counted).
  function vulns.lookup_id(id_type, id)


* Search and return a list of vulnerability entries according to the
  specified selection filter.
  function vulns.find(selection_filter)

  selection_filter is a table with the current fields:
    state: The state mask (optional field).
    hosts_filter: A function that will inspect the host table and returns
                  true or false. (Optional field).
    ports_filter: A function that will inspect the host and port tables
                  and returns true or false. (Optional field).
    risk_factor: The risk factor (optional).
    id_type: The ID type ('CVE', 'OSVDB' or whatever) (optional).
    id: The vulnerability ID (optional).


  -- Return all vulnerabilities
  local list = vulns.find()

  -- Select the returned vulnerabilities
  local list = vulns.find({state = bit.bor(vulns.State.VULN,
                                           vulns.State.LIKELY_VULN),

                          -- The argument is the vuln host table if it
                          -- was specified.
                          hosts_filter = function(host)
                                            -- parse and match data
                                            -- return true or false
                                         end,

                          -- The argument is the vuln host and port tables
                          -- if they were specified.
                          ports_filter = function(host, port)
                                            -- parse and match data
                                            -- return true or false
                                         end,

                          risk_factor = "High",
                          id_type = 'CVE', id ='CVE-XXXX-XXXX'})


* Return a list of vulnerability entries (hosts that are affected or were
  tested against the specified vulnerability ID) according to the state
  mask. 
  function vulns.find_id_entries(id_type, id, state_mask)

  e.g.
  -- all states
  local list = vulns.find_id_entries('CVE', 'CVE-XXXX-XXXX')

  -- Hosts and entries that are "NOT VULNERABLE"
  local list = vulns.find_id_entries('CVE', 'CVE-XXXX-XXXX',
                                     vulns.State.NOT_VULN)

  -- Hosts and entries that are: "LIKELY VULNERABLE" and "VULNERABLE"
  local list = vulns.find_id_entries('CVE', 'CVE-XXXX-XXXX',
                                     bit.bor(vulns.State.LIKELY_VULN,
                                     vulns.State.VULN))

  With this function you can construct a list of major vulnerability
  issues and see if your network is vulnerable or not.


* Return a vulnerability iterator. This function will take a selection
  filter like the vulns.find() function.
  function vulns.get_vulnerabilities(selection_filter)


* Return formatted output to be displayed to the user. This function will
  take a selection filter like the vulns.find() function.
  function vulns.make_output(selection_filter)

  -- Post-processing scripts can do:
  return vulns.make_output({state = vulns.State.VULN,
                            risk_factor = "High"})


* Return formatted output to be displayed to the user. This function will
  take a vulnerability entry that was returned by one of the previous
  functions: vulns.find(), vulns.find_id_entries() and
             vulns.get_vulnerabilities()

  function vulns.make_output_vuln(vuln_table)


* Register callback functions that will filter vulnerabilities before they
  are saved in the registry. This is a powerfull function, use with care.
  The callback function will take a vuln_table as an argument, and must
  return true or false.

  function vulns.register_filter(callback_filter)


Usage:
------

  -- Post-processing script:
  prerule = function()
    return vulns.save_reports()
  end
 
  postrule = function()
    local ids = vulns.registry_get_ids()
    if ids then
      return true
    end
    return false
  end

  prerule_action = function()
    return nil
  end

  postrule_action = function()
    -- parse, manipulate and report saved vulnerabilities
    -- ...

    -- Return all the stored vulnerabilities that have a state:
    -- 'VULNERABLE' or 'LIKELY_VULNERABLE'
    return vulns.make_output({state = bit.bor(vulns.State.VULN,
                                              vulns.State.LIKELY_VULN)})
  end

  tactions = {prerule = prerule_action, postrule = postrule_action}
  action = function(...) return tactions[SCRIPT_TYPE](...) end



Vulnerability database Internal data representation:
----------------------------------------------------

VULNS = {

  -- Vulnerability entries
  ENTRIES = {

    HOSTS = {
      [host_a] = {

        vuln_1 = {
          title = 'Program X vulnerability',
          state = vulns.State.VULN,
          IDS = {CVE = 'CVE-XXXX-XXXX', OSVDB = 'XXXXX'},

          -- the following fields are all optional
          risk_factor = 'High',
          description = 'vulnerability description ...',

          references = VULNS.SHARED.REFERENCES[x],
        },

        vuln_2 = {
          ...
        },
        ...
      },

      [host_b] = {
        ...
      },
    },
    
    NETWORK = {

    },
  },


  -- Store shared data between vulnerabilities here (type of data: tables)
  SHARED = {
    -- List of references, members will be referenced by the previous
    -- vulnerability entries.
    REFERENCES = {
      {
        ["http://...";] = true,
        ["http://...";] = true,
      },
      {
      },
    },
  },


  -- This is a cache to reference all the vulnerabilities information:
  -- tables, maps etc. Only memory addresses are stored here.
  --
  -- This will also help us to lookup vulnerabilities by IDs, and to
  -- update entries.
  IDS = {

    'CVE' = {
    
      'CVE-XXXX-XXXX' = {
        references = VULNS.SHARED.REFERENCES[x],

        entries = {
          HOSTS = {
            -- References to the hosts affected by this vulnerability.
            [host_x] = VULNS.ENTRIES.HOSTS[host_x][vuln_x],
            [host_y] = VULNS.ENTRIES.HOSTS[host_y][vuln_a],
            ...
          },
      },

      'CVE-YYYY-YYYY' = {

      },

    },

    'OSVDB' = {
      'XXXXX' = {
        references = VULNS.SHARED.REFERENCES[x],

        entries = {
          ...
        },
      },
      'YYYYY' = {
        references = VULNS.SHARED.REFERENCES[y],
        entries = {
          ...
        },
      },
    },

    'YOUR_FAVORITE_ID' = {
      'XXXXX' = {
        ...
      },
    },

  },

}

Thanks.


-- 
tixxdz
http://opendz.org
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